skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 10:00 PM ET on Friday, December 8 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, December 9 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Brooks, J."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Field measurements of hydrologic tracers indicate varying magnitudes of geochemical separation between subsurface pore waters. The potential for conventional soil physics alone to explain isotopic differences between preferential flow and tightly-bound water remains unclear. Here, we explore physical drivers of isotopic separations using 650 different model configurations of soil, climate, and mobile/immobile soil-water domain characteristics, without confounding fractionation or plant uptake effects. We find simulations with coarser soils and less precipitation led to reduced separation between pore spaces and drainage. Amplified separations are found with larger immobile domains and, to a lesser extent, higher mobile-immobile transfer rates. Nonetheless, isotopic separations remained small (<4‰ for δ2H) across simulations, indicating that contrasting transport dynamics generate limited geochemical differences. Therefore, conventional soil physics alone are unlikely to explain large ecohydrological separations observed elsewhere, and further efforts aimed at reducing methodological artifacts, refining understanding of fractionation processes, and investigating new physiochemical mechanisms are needed.

    more » « less

    We present new imaging of a sub-kpc-scale binary active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidate from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (e-MERLIN). Two unresolved radio sources of similar luminosity around 1022 WHz−1 are identified in ∼35 h of e-MERLIN 6 cm imaging. These radio sources have an angular separation of 0.19 ± 0.06 arcsec and position angle (PA) of 22° ± 10°, corresponding to a projected separation of 0.95 ± 0.29 kpc at the epoch of the source. Our results suggest the presence of a kpc-scale active black hole pair hosted by two galaxies in the late stage of a merger at z  = 0.35. This work follows Woo et al., which presented two optical sources with a similar separation and PA, and a velocity separation of 200 km s−1. Our target adds to the currently limited sample of close-separation binary AGNs, which will aid in understanding the frequency of mergers and the stochastic gravitational wave background.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    In mountainous river basins of the Pacific Northwest, climate models predict that winter warming will result in increased precipitation falling as rain and decreased snowpack. A detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of water sources across river networks will help illuminate climate change impacts on river flow regimes. Because the stable isotopic composition of precipitation varies geographically, variation in surface water isotope ratios indicates the volume‐weighted integration of upstream source water. We measured the stable isotope ratios of surface water samples collected in the Snoqualmie River basin in western Washington over June and September 2017 and the 2018 water year. We used ordinary least squares regression and geostatistical Spatial Stream Network models to relate surface water isotope ratios to mean watershed elevation (MWE) across seasons. Geologic and discharge data was integrated with water isotopes to create a conceptual model of streamflow generation for the Snoqualmie River. We found that surface water stable isotope ratios were lowest in the spring and highest in the dry, Mediterranean summer, but related strongly to MWE throughout the year. Low isotope ratios in spring reflect the input of snowmelt into high elevation tributaries. High summer isotope ratios suggest that groundwater is sourced from low elevation areas and recharged by winter precipitation. Overall, our results suggest that baseflow in the Snoqualmie River may be relatively resilient to predicted warming and subsequent changes to snowpack in the Pacific Northwest.

    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Abstract

    Rising global temperatures are expected to decrease the precipitation amount that falls as snow, causing greater risk of water scarcity, groundwater overdraft, and fire in areas that rely on mountain snowpack for their water supply. Streamflow in large river basins varies with the amount, timing, and type of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and drainage properties of watersheds; however, these controls vary in time and space making it difficult to identify the areas contributing most to flow and when. In this study, we separate the evaporative influences from source values of water isotopes from the Snake River basin in the western United States to relate source area to flow dynamics. We developed isoscapes (δ2H and δ18O) for the basin and found that isotopic composition of surface water in small watersheds is primarily controlled by longitude, latitude, and elevation. To examine temporal variability in source contributions to flow, we present a 6‐years record of Snake River water isotopes from King Hill, Idaho, after removing evaporative influences. During periods of low flow, source water values were isotopically lighter indicating a larger contribution to flow from surface waters in the highest elevation, eastern portion of the basin. River evaporation increases were evident during summer likely reflecting climate, changing water availability, and management strategies within the basin. Our findings present a potential tool for identifying critical portions of basins contributing to river flow as climate fluctuations alter flow dynamics. This tool can be applied in other continental‐interior basins where evaporation may obscure source water isotopic signatures.

    more » « less
  7. Abstract

    We search for gravitational-wave (GW) transients associated with fast radio bursts (FRBs) detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project, during the first part of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 April 1 15:00 UTC–2019 October 1 15:00 UTC). Triggers from 22 FRBs were analyzed with a search that targets both binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers. A targeted search for generic GW transients was conducted on 40 FRBs. We find no significant evidence for a GW association in either search. Given the large uncertainties in the distances of our FRB sample, we are unable to exclude the possibility of a GW association. Assessing the volumetric event rates of both FRB and binary mergers, an association is limited to 15% of the FRB population for BNS mergers or 1% for NSBH mergers. We report 90% confidence lower bounds on the distance to each FRB for a range of GW progenitor models and set upper limits on the energy emitted through GWs for a range of emission scenarios. We find values of order 1051–1057erg for models with central GW frequencies in the range 70–3560 Hz. At the sensitivity of this search, we find these limits to be above the predicted GW emissions for the models considered. We also find no significant coincident detection of GWs with the repeater, FRB 20200120E, which is the closest known extragalactic FRB.

    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  8. Abstract The global network of gravitational-wave observatories now includes five detectors, namely LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, Virgo, KAGRA, and GEO 600. These detectors collected data during their third observing run, O3, composed of three phases: O3a starting in 2019 April and lasting six months, O3b starting in 2019 November and lasting five months, and O3GK starting in 2020 April and lasting two weeks. In this paper we describe these data and various other science products that can be freely accessed through the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center at . The main data set, consisting of the gravitational-wave strain time series that contains the astrophysical signals, is released together with supporting data useful for their analysis and documentation, tutorials, as well as analysis software packages. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024