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  1. ABSTRACT

    Misalignments between the rotation axis of stars and gas are an indication of external processes shaping galaxies throughout their evolution. Using observations of 3068 galaxies from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, we compute global kinematic position angles for 1445 objects with reliable kinematics and identify 169 (12 per cent) galaxies which show stellar-gas misalignments. Kinematically decoupled features are more prevalent in early-type/passive galaxies compared to late-type/star-forming systems. Star formation is the main source of gas ionization in only 22 per cent of misaligned galaxies; 17 per cent are Seyfert objects, while 61 per cent show Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region features. We identify the most probable physical cause of the kinematic decoupling and find that, while accretion-driven cases are dominant, for up to 8 per cent of our sample, the misalignment may be tracing outflowing gas. When considering only misalignments driven by accretion, the acquired gas is feeding active star formation in only ∼1/4 of cases. As a population, misaligned galaxies have higher Sérsic indices and lower stellar spin and specific star formation rates than appropriately matched samples of aligned systems. These results suggest that both morphology and star formation/gas content are significantly correlated with the prevalence and timescales of misalignments. Specifically, torques on misaligned gas discs are smaller for more centrallymore »concentrated galaxies, while the newly accreted gas feels lower viscous drag forces in more gas-poor objects. Marginal evidence of star formation not being correlated with misalignment likelihood for late-type galaxies suggests that such morphologies in the nearby Universe might be the result of preferentially aligned accretion at higher redshifts.

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  2. ABSTRACT

    The combination of gas-phase oxygen abundances and stellar metallicities can provide us with unique insights into the metal enrichment histories of galaxies. In this work, we compare the stellar and gas-phase metallicities measured within a 1Re aperture for a representative sample of 472 star-forming galaxies extracted from the SAMI Galaxy Survey. We confirm that the stellar and interstellar medium (ISM) metallicities are strongly correlated, with scatter ∼3 times smaller than that found in previous works, and that integrated stellar populations are generally more metal-poor than the ISM, especially in low-mass galaxies. The ratio between the two metallicities strongly correlates with several integrated galaxy properties including stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and a gravitational potential proxy. However, we show that these trends are primarily a consequence of: (a) the different star formation and metal enrichment histories of the galaxies, and (b) the fact that while stellar metallicities trace primarily iron enrichment, gas-phase metallicity indicators are calibrated to the enrichment of oxygen in the ISM. Indeed, once both metallicities are converted to the same ‘element base’ all of our trends become significantly weaker. Interestingly, the ratio of gas to stellar metallicity is always below the value expected for a simple closed-boxmore »model, which requires that outflows and inflows play an important role in the enrichment history across our entire stellar mass range. This work highlights the complex interplay between stellar and gas-phase metallicities and shows how care must be taken in comparing them to constrain models of galaxy formation and evolution.

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  3. ABSTRACT We use comparisons between the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral Field Spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey and equilibrium galaxy models to infer the importance of disc fading in the transition of spirals into lenticular (S0) galaxies. The local S0 population has both higher photometric concentration and lower stellar spin than spiral galaxies of comparable mass and we test whether this separation can be accounted for by passive aging alone. We construct a suite of dynamically self-consistent galaxy models, with a bulge, disc, and halo using the galactics code. The dispersion-dominated bulge is given a uniformly old stellar population, while the disc is given a current star formation rate putting it on the main sequence, followed by sudden instantaneous quenching. We then generate mock observables (r-band images, stellar velocity, and dispersion maps) as a function of time since quenching for a range of bulge/total (B/T) mass ratios. The disc fading leads to a decline in measured spin as the bulge contribution becomes more dominant, and also leads to increased concentration. However, the quantitative changes observed after 5 Gyr of disc fading cannot account for all of the observed difference. We see similar results if we instead subdivide our SAMI Galaxy Survey sample by starmore »formation (relative to the main sequence). We use EAGLE simulations to also take into account progenitor bias, using size evolution to infer quenching time. The EAGLE simulations suggest that the progenitors of current passive galaxies typically have slightly higher spin than present day star-forming disc galaxies of the same mass. As a result, progenitor bias moves the data further from the disc fading model scenario, implying that intrinsic dynamical evolution must be important in the transition from star-forming discs to passive discs.« less
  4. ABSTRACT

    The XXL Survey is the largest homogeneous survey carried out with XMM-Newton. Covering an area of 50 deg2, the survey contains several hundred galaxy clusters out to a redshift of ≈2, above an X-ray flux limit of ∼6 × 10−15 er g cm−2 s−1. The GAMA spectroscopic survey of ∼300 000 galaxies covers ≈286 deg2, down to an r-band magnitude of r < 19.8 mag. The region of overlap of these two surveys (covering 14.6 deg2) represents an ideal opportunity to study clusters selected via two independent selection criteria. Generating two independently selected samples of clusters, one drawn from XXL (spanning a redshift range 0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.3) and another from GAMA (0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.2), both spanning 0.2 ≲ M500 ≲ 5 × 1014 M⊙, we investigate the relationship between X-ray luminosity and velocity dispersion (LX − σv relation). Comparing the LX − σv relation between the X-ray selected and optically selected samples, when not accounting for the X-ray selection, we find that the scatter of the X-ray selected sample is 2.7 times higher than the optically selected sample (at the 3.7σ level). Accounting for the X-ray selection to model the LX − σv relation, we find that the difference in the scatter increases (with the X-ray selectedmore »sample having a scatter 3.4 times larger than the optically selected sample). Although the scatter of the optically selected sample is lower, we find 13 optically selected GAMA groups undetected in X-rays. Inspection of the difference in magnitude between the first and second brightest galaxies in the cluster, and a stacked X-ray image of these 13 groups, suggests that these are young systems still in the process of forming.

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  5. ABSTRACT

    Tidal features in the outskirts of galaxies yield unique information about their past interactions and are a key prediction of the hierarchical structure formation paradigm. The Vera C. Rubin Observatory is poised to deliver deep observations for potentially millions of objects with visible tidal features, but the inference of galaxy interaction histories from such features is not straightforward. Utilizing automated techniques and human visual classification in conjunction with realistic mock images produced using the NewHorizon cosmological simulation, we investigate the nature, frequency, and visibility of tidal features and debris across a range of environments and stellar masses. In our simulated sample, around 80 per cent of the flux in the tidal features around Milky Way or greater mass galaxies is detected at the 10-yr depth of the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (30–31 mag arcsec−2), falling to 60 per cent assuming a shallower final depth of 29.5 mag arcsec−2. The fraction of total flux found in tidal features increases towards higher masses, rising to 10 per cent for the most massive objects in our sample (M⋆ ∼ 1011.5 M⊙). When observed at sufficient depth, such objects frequently exhibit many distinct tidal features with complex shapes. The interpretation and characterization of such features varies significantly withmore »image depth and object orientation, introducing significant biases in their classification. Assuming the data reduction pipeline is properly optimized, we expect the Rubin Observatory to be capable of recovering much of the flux found in the outskirts of Milky Way mass galaxies, even at intermediate redshifts (z < 0.2).

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