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  1. Tet1 protects against house dust mite (HDM)-induced lung inflammation in mice and alters the lung methylome and transcriptome. In order to explore the role of Tet1 in individual lung epithelial cell types in HDM-induced inflammation, we established a model of HDM-induced lung inflammation in Tet1 knockout and littermate wild-type mice, then studied EpCAM+ lung epithelial cells using single-cell RNA-seq analysis. We identified eight EpCAM+ lung epithelial cell types, among which AT2 cells were the most abundant. HDM challenge altered the relative abundance of epithelial cell types and resulted in cell type-specific transcriptomic changes. Bulk and cell type-specific analysis also showedmore »that loss of Tet1 led to the altered expression of genes linked to augmented HDM-induced lung inflammation, including alarms, detoxification enzymes, oxidative stress response genes, and tissue repair genes. The transcriptomic regulation was accompanied by alterations in TF activities. Trajectory analysis supports that HDM may enhance the differentiation of AP and BAS cells into AT2 cells, independent of Tet1. Collectively, our data showed that lung epithelial cells had common and unique transcriptomic signatures of allergic lung inflammation. Tet1 deletion altered transcriptomic networks in various lung epithelial cells, which may promote allergen-induced lung inflammation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Extreme environments test the limits of life; yet, some organisms thrive in harsh conditions. Extremophile lineages inspire questions about how organisms can tolerate physiochemical stressors and whether the repeated colonization of extreme environments is facilitated by predictable and repeatable evolutionary innovations. We identified the mechanistic basis underlying convergent evolution of tolerance to hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S)—a toxicant that impairs mitochondrial function—across evolutionarily independent lineages of a fish ( Poecilia mexicana , Poeciliidae) from H 2 S-rich springs. Using comparative biochemical and physiological analyses, we found that mitochondrial function is maintained in the presence of H 2 S in sulfidemore »spring P. mexicana but not ancestral lineages from nonsulfidic habitats due to convergent adaptations in the primary toxicity target and a major detoxification enzyme. Genome-wide local ancestry analyses indicated that convergent evolution of increased H 2 S tolerance in different populations is likely caused by a combination of selection on standing genetic variation and de novo mutations. On a macroevolutionary scale, H 2 S tolerance in 10 independent lineages of sulfide spring fishes across multiple genera of Poeciliidae is correlated with the convergent modification and expression changes in genes associated with H 2 S toxicity and detoxification. Our results demonstrate that the modification of highly conserved physiological pathways associated with essential mitochondrial processes mediates tolerance to physiochemical stress. In addition, the same pathways, genes, and—in some instances—codons are implicated in H 2 S adaptation in lineages that span 40 million years of evolution.« less