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  1. Abstract Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), are able to fabricate physical components from three-dimensional (3D) digital models through the sequential deposition of material onto a print bed in a layer-by-layer fashion. In FDM and many other AM techniques, it is critical that the part adheres to the bed during printing. After printing, however, excessive bed adhesion can lead to part damage or prevent automated part removal. In this work, we validate a novel testing method that quickly and cheaply evaluates bed adhesion without constraints on part geometry. Using this method, we study the effect of bed temperature on the peak removal force for polylactic acid (PLA) parts printed on bare borosilicate glass and polyimide (PI)-coated beds. In addition to validating conventional wisdom that bed adhesion is maximized between 60 and 70 °C (140 and 158 °F), we observe that cooling the bed below 40 °C (104 °F), as is commonly done to facilitate part removal, has minimal additional benefit. Counterintuitively, we find that heating the bed after printing is often a more efficient process for facile part removal. In addition to introducing a general method for measuring and optimizing bed adhesion via bed temperature modulation,more »these results can be used to accelerate the production and testing of AM components in printer farms and autonomous research systems.« less
  2. Abstract

    Bayesian optimization (BO) has been leveraged for guiding autonomous and high-throughput experiments in materials science. However, few have evaluated the efficiency of BO across a broad range of experimental materials domains. In this work, we quantify the performance of BO with a collection of surrogate model and acquisition function pairs across five diverse experimental materials systems. By defining acceleration and enhancement metrics for materials optimization objectives, we find that surrogate models such as Gaussian Process (GP) with anisotropic kernels and Random Forest (RF) have comparable performance in BO, and both outperform the commonly used GP with isotropic kernels. GP with anisotropic kernels has demonstrated the most robustness, yet RF is a close alternative and warrants more consideration because it is free from distribution assumptions, has smaller time complexity, and requires less effort in initial hyperparameter selection. We also raise awareness about the benefits of using GP with anisotropic kernels in future materials optimization campaigns.

  3. Abstract

    Resolution and field-of-view often represent a fundamental tradeoff in microscopy. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in which a cantilevered probe deflects under the influence of local forces as it scans across a substrate, is a key example of this tradeoff with high resolution imaging being largely limited to small areas. Despite the tremendous impact of AFM in fields including materials science, biology, and surface science, the limitation in imaging area has remained a key barrier to studying samples with intricate hierarchical structure. Here, we show that massively parallel AFM with >1000 probes is possible through the combination of a cantilever-free probe architecture and a scalable optical method for detecting probe–sample contact. Specifically, optically reflective conical probes on a comparatively compliant film are found to comprise a distributed optical lever that translates probe motion into an optical signal that provides sub-10 nm vertical precision. The scalability of this approach makes it well suited for imaging applications that require high resolution over large areas.

  4. While additive manufacturing (AM) has facilitated the production of complex structures, it has also highlighted the immense challenge inherent in identifying the optimum AM structure for a given application. Numerical methods are important tools for optimization, but experiment remains the gold standard for studying nonlinear, but critical, mechanical properties such as toughness. To address the vastness of AM design space and the need for experiment, we develop a Bayesian experimental autonomous researcher (BEAR) that combines Bayesian optimization and high-throughput automated experimentation. In addition to rapidly performing experiments, the BEAR leverages iterative experimentation by selecting experiments based on all available results. Using the BEAR, we explore the toughness of a parametric family of structures and observe an almost 60-fold reduction in the number of experiments needed to identify high-performing structures relative to a grid-based search. These results show the value of machine learning in experimental fields where data are sparse.
  5. Atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are used not only to image with nanometer-scale resolution, but also to nanofabricate structures on a surface using methods such as dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). DPN involves using the tip of the AFM to deposit a small amount of material on the surface. Typically, this process is done in open loop, leading to large variations in the amount of material transferred. One of the first steps to closing this loop is to be able to accurately and rapidly measure the amount of deposition. This can be done by measuring the change in the resonance frequency of the cantilever before and after a write as that shift is directly related to the change in mass on the cantilever. Currently, this is done using a thermal-based system identification, a technique which uses the natural Brownian excitation of the cantilever as a white noise excitation combined with a fast Fourier transform to extract a Bode plot. However, thermal-based techniques do not have a good signal to noise ratio at typical cantilever resonance frequencies and thus do not provide the needed resolution in the DPN application. Here we develop a scheme that iteratively uses a stepped-sine approach. At each step ofmore »the iteration, three frequencies close to the approximate location of the resonance are injected and used to fit a model of the magnitude of the transfer function. The identified peak is used to select three new frequencies in a smaller range in a binary search to reduce the uncertainty of the measured resonance peak location. The scheme is demonstrated through simulation and shown to produce an accuracy of better than 0.5 Hz on a cantilever with a 14 kHz resonance in a physically realistic noise scenario.« less