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  1. We demonstrate an on-chip spectrometer readily integrable with CMOS electronics. The structure is comprised of a SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2waveguide atop a silicon substrate. A transversely chirped grating is fabricated, in a single-step optical lithography process, on a portion of the waveguide to provide angle and wavelength dependent coupling to the guided mode. The spectral and angular information is encoded in the spatial dependence of the grating period. A uniform pitch grating area, separated from the collection area by an unpatterned propagation region, provides the out-coupling to a CMOS detector array. A resolution of 0.3 nm at 633 nm with a spectral coverage tunable across the visible and NIR (to ∼ 1 µm limited by the Si photodetector) by changing the angle of incidence, is demonstrated without the need for any signal processing deconvolution. This on-chip spectrometer concept will cost effectively enable a broad range of applications that are beyond the reach of current integrated spectroscopic technologies.

  2. We report a measurement of the quantum efficiency for a surface plasma wave (SPW)-coupled InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs dots-in-a-well (Dwell) quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) having a single-color response at ∼10 µm. A gold film perforated with a square array of complex, non-circular apertures is employed to manipulate the near-fields of the fundamental SPW. The quantum efficiency is quantitatively divided into absorption efficiency strongly enhanced by the SPW, and collection efficiency mostly independent of it. In the absorption efficiency, the evanescent near-fields of the fundamental SPW critically enhances QDIP performance but undergoes the attenuation by the absorption in the Dwell that ultimately limits the quantum efficiency. For the highest quantum efficiency available with plasmonic coupling, an optimal overlap between Dwell and SPW near-fields is required. Based on experiment and simulation, the upper limit of the plasmonic enhancement in quantum efficiency for the present device is addressed.