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Aerosol size distribution changes in FIREX-AQ biomass burning plumes: the impact of plume concentration on coagulation and OA condensation/evaporationAbstract. The evolution of organic aerosol (OA) and aerosol sizedistributions within smoke plumes is uncertain due to the variability inrates of coagulation and OA condensation/evaporation between different smokeplumes and at different locations within a single plume. We use aircraftdata from the FIREX-AQ campaign to evaluate differences in evolving aerosolsize distributions, OA, and oxygen to carbon ratios (O:C) between and withinsmoke plumes during the first several hours of aging as a function of smokeconcentration. The observations show that the median particle diameterincreases faster in smoke of a higher initial OA concentration (>1000 µg m−3), with diameter growth of over 100 nm in 8 h – despite generally having a net decrease in OA enhancementratios – than smoke of a lower initial OA concentration (<100 µg m−3), which had net increases in OA. Observations of OA and O:Csuggest that evaporation and/or secondary OA formation was greater in lessconcentrated smoke prior to the first measurement (5–57 min afteremission). We simulate the size changes due to coagulation and dilution andadjust for OA condensation/evaporation based on the observed changes in OA.We found that coagulation explains the majority of the diameter growth, withOA evaporation/condensation having a relatively minor impact. We found thatmixing between the core and edges of the plume generally occurred ontimescalesmore »
Rapid cloud removal of dimethyl sulfide oxidation products limits SO 2 and cloud condensation nuclei production in the marine atmosphereOceans emit large quantities of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) to the marine atmosphere. The oxidation of DMS leads to the formation and growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with consequent effects on Earth’s radiation balance and climate. The quantitative assessment of the impact of DMS emissions on CCN concentrations necessitates a detailed description of the oxidation of DMS in the presence of existing aerosol particles and clouds. In the unpolluted marine atmosphere, DMS is efficiently oxidized to hydroperoxymethyl thioformate (HPMTF), a stable intermediate in the chemical trajectory toward sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and ultimately sulfate aerosol. Using direct airborne flux measurements, we demonstrate that the irreversible loss of HPMTF to clouds in the marine boundary layer determines the HPMTF lifetime ( τ HPMTF < 2 h) and terminates DMS oxidation to SO 2 . When accounting for HPMTF cloud loss in a global chemical transport model, we show that SO 2 production from DMS is reduced by 35% globally and near-surface (0 to 3 km) SO 2 concentrations over the ocean are lowered by 24%. This large, previously unconsidered loss process for volatile sulfur accelerates the timescale for the conversion of DMS to sulfate while limiting new particle formation inmore »
Global airborne sampling reveals a previously unobserved dimethyl sulfide oxidation mechanism in the marine atmosphereDimethyl sulfide (DMS), emitted from the oceans, is the most abundant biological source of sulfur to the marine atmosphere. Atmospheric DMS is oxidized to condensable products that form secondary aerosols that affect Earth’s radiative balance by scattering solar radiation and serving as cloud condensation nuclei. We report the atmospheric discovery of a previously unquantified DMS oxidation product, hydroperoxymethyl thioformate (HPMTF, HOOCH 2 SCHO), identified through global-scale airborne observations that demonstrate it to be a major reservoir of marine sulfur. Observationally constrained model results show that more than 30% of oceanic DMS emitted to the atmosphere forms HPMTF. Coincident particle measurements suggest a strong link between HPMTF concentration and new particle formation and growth. Analyses of these observations show that HPMTF chemistry must be included in atmospheric models to improve representation of key linkages between the biogeochemistry of the ocean, marine aerosol formation and growth, and their combined effects on climate.