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  1. This whitepaper focuses on the astrophysical systematics which are encountered in dark matter searches. Oftentimes in indirect and also in direct dark matter searches, astrophysical systematics are a major limiting factor to sensitivity to dark matter. Just as there are many forms of dark matter searches, there are many forms of backgrounds. We attempt to cover the major systematics arising in dark matter searches using photons -- radio and gamma rays -- to cosmic rays, neutrinos and gravitational waves. Examples include astrophysical sources of cosmic messengers and their interactions which can mimic dark matter signatures. In turn, these depend on commensurate studies in understanding the cosmic environment -- gas distributions, magnetic field configurations -- as well as relevant nuclear astrophysics. We also cover the astrophysics governing celestial bodies and galaxies used to probe dark matter, from black holes to dwarf galaxies. Finally, we cover astrophysical backgrounds related to probing the dark matter distribution and kinematics, which impact a wide range of dark matter studies. In the future, the rise of multi-messenger astronomy, and novel analysis methods to exploit it for dark matter, will offer various strategic ways to continue to enhance our understanding of astrophysical backgrounds to deliver improved sensitivitymore »to dark matter.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 13, 2023
  2. The pre-merging system of galaxy clusters Abell 3391-Abell 3395 located at a mean redshift of 0.053 has been observed at 1 GHz in an ASKAP/EMU Early Science observation as well as in X-rays with eROSITA. The projected separation of the X-ray peaks of the two clusters is ~50′ or ~3.1 Mpc. Here we present an inventory of interesting radio sources in this field around this cluster merger. While the eROSITA observations provide clear indications of a bridge of thermal gas between the clusters, neither ASKAP nor MWA observations show any diffuse radio emission coinciding with the X-ray bridge. We derive an upper limit on the radio emissivity in the bridge region of 〈 J 〉 1 GHz < 1.2 × 10 −44 W Hz −1 m −3 . A non-detection of diffuse radio emission in the X-ray bridge between these two clusters has implications for particle-acceleration mechanisms in cosmological large-scale structure. We also report extended or otherwise noteworthy radio sources in the 30 deg 2 field around Abell 3391-Abell 3395. We identified 20 Giant Radio Galaxies, plus 7 candidates, with linear projected sizes greater than 1 Mpc. The sky density of field radio galaxies with largest linear sizes of >0.7more »Mpc is ≈1.7 deg −2 , three times higher than previously reported. We find no evidence for a cosmological evolution of the population of Giant Radio Galaxies. Moreover, we find seven candidates for cluster radio relics and radio halos.« less
  3. Context. Inferences about dark matter, dark energy, and the missing baryons all depend on the accuracy of our model of large-scale structure evolution. In particular, with cosmological simulations in our model of the Universe, we trace the growth of structure, and visualize the build-up of bigger structures from smaller ones and of gaseous filaments connecting galaxy clusters. Aims. Here we aim to reveal the complexity of the large-scale structure assembly process in great detail and on scales from tens of kiloparsecs up to more than 10 Mpc with new sensitive large-scale observations from the latest generation of instruments. We also aim to compare our findings with expectations from our cosmological model. Methods. We used dedicated SRG/eROSITA performance verification (PV) X-ray, ASKAP/EMU Early Science radio, and DECam optical observations of a ~15 deg 2 region around the nearby interacting galaxy cluster system A3391/95 to study the warm-hot gas in cluster outskirts and filaments, the surrounding large-scale structure and its formation process, the morphological complexity in the inner parts of the clusters, and the (re-)acceleration of plasma. We also used complementary Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect data from the Planck survey and custom-made Galactic total (neutral plus molecular) hydrogen column density maps based onmore »the HI4PI and IRAS surveys. We relate the observations to expectations from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations from the Magneticum suite. Results. We trace the irregular morphology of warm and hot gas of the main clusters from their centers out to well beyond their characteristic radii, r 200 . Between the two main cluster systems, we observe an emission bridge on large scale and with good spatial resolution. This bridge includes a known galaxy group but this can only partially explain the emission. Most gas in the bridge appears hot, but thanks to eROSITA’s unique soft response and large field of view, we discover some tantalizing hints for warm, truly primordial filamentary gas connecting the clusters. Several matter clumps physically surrounding the system are detected. For the “Northern Clump,” we provide evidence that it is falling towards A3391 from the X-ray hot gas morphology and radio lobe structure of its central AGN. Moreover, the shapes of these X-ray and radio structures appear to be formed by gas well beyond the virial radius, r 100 , of A3391, thereby providing an indirect way of probing the gas in this elusive environment. Many of the extended sources in the field detected by eROSITA are also known clusters or new clusters in the background, including a known SZ cluster at redshift z = 1. We find roughly an order of magnitude more cluster candidates than the SPT and ACT surveys together in the same area. We discover an emission filament north of the virial radius of A3391 connecting to the Northern Clump. Furthermore, the absorption-corrected eROSITA surface brightness map shows that this emission filament extends south of A3395 and beyond an extended X-ray-emitting object (the “Little Southern Clump”) towards another galaxy cluster, all at the same redshift. The total projected length of this continuous warm-hot emission filament is 15 Mpc, running almost 4 degrees across the entire eROSITA PV observation field. The Northern and Southern Filament are each detected at >4 σ . The Planck SZ map additionally appears to support the presence of both new filaments. Furthermore, the DECam galaxy density map shows galaxy overdensities in the same regions. Overall, the new datasets provide impressive confirmation of the theoretically expected structure formation processes on the individual system level, including the surrounding warm-hot intergalactic medium distribution; the similarities of features found in a similar system in the Magneticum simulation are striking. Our spatially resolved findings show that baryons indeed reside in large-scale warm-hot gas filaments with a clumpy structure.« less
  4. ABSTRACT We study the properties of the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) 843 MHz radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) population in galaxy clusters from two large catalogues created using the Dark Energy Survey (DES): ∼11 800 optically selected RM-Y3 and ∼1000 X-ray selected MARD-Y3 clusters. We show that cluster radio loud AGNs are highly concentrated around cluster centres to $z$ ∼ 1. We measure the halo occupation number for cluster radio AGNs above a threshold luminosity, finding that the number of radio AGNs per cluster increases with cluster halo mass as N ∝ M1.2 ± 0.1 (N ∝ M0.68 ± 0.34) for the RM-Y3 (MARD-Y3) sample. Together, these results indicate that radio mode feedback is favoured in more massive galaxy clusters. Using optical counterparts for these sources, we demonstrate weak redshift evolution in the host broad-band colours and the radio luminosity at fixed host galaxy stellar mass. We use the redshift evolution in radio luminosity to break the degeneracy between density and luminosity evolution scenarios in the redshift trend of the radio AGNs luminosity function (LF). The LF exhibits a redshift trend of the form (1 + $z$)γ in density and luminosity, respectively, of γD = 3.0 ± 0.4 and γP = 0.21 ± 0.15 in the RM-Y3 sample, and γD = 2.6 ± 0.7 andmore »γP = 0.31 ± 0.15 in MARD-Y3. We discuss the physical drivers of radio mode feedback in cluster AGNs, and we use the cluster radio galaxy LF to estimate the average radio-mode feedback energy as a function of cluster mass and redshift and compare it to the core (<0.1R500) X-ray radiative losses for clusters at $z$ < 1.« less