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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. abstract Coastal ecosystems play a disproportionately large role in society, and climate change is altering their ecological structure and function, as well as their highly valued goods and services. In the present article, we review the results from decade-scale research on coastal ecosystems shaped by foundation species (e.g., coral reefs, kelp forests, coastal marshes, seagrass meadows, mangrove forests, barrier islands) to show how climate change is altering their ecological attributes and services. We demonstrate the value of site-based, long-term studies for quantifying the resilience of coastal systems to climate forcing, identifying thresholds that cause shifts in ecological state, and investigating the capacity of coastal ecosystems to adapt to climate change and the biological mechanisms that underlie it. We draw extensively from research conducted at coastal ecosystems studied by the US Long Term Ecological Research Network, where long-term, spatially extensive observational data are coupled with shorter-term mechanistic studies to understand the ecological consequences of climate change. 
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  4. Abstract

    We compile full ocean‐depth size‐fractionated (1–51 and >51 μm) particle concentration and composition of suspended particulate matter from three recent U.S. GEOTRACES cruises, and exploit detailed information of particle characteristics measured to give insights into controls on sinking velocity and mass flux. Our model integrates the concept of fractal scaling into Stokes' Law by incorporating one of two porosity‐size power law relationships that result in fractal dimensions of 1.4 and 2.1. The medians of pump‐derived total (>1 μm) mass flux in the upper 100 m of gyre stations are 285.1, 609.2, and 99.3 mg/m2/d in the North Atlantic, Eastern Tropical South Pacific, and Western Arctic Ocean cruises, respectively. In this data set, variations in particle concentration were generally more important than sinking velocity in controlling variations in mass flux. We examine different terms in a Stokes' Law model to explore how variations in particle and water column characteristics from these three cruises affect mass flux. The decomposition of different aspects of the Stokes' relationship sheds light on the lowest total mass flux of the three cruises in the Western Arctic, which could be explained by the Arctic having the lowest particle concentrations as well as the lowest sinking velocities due to having the smallest particle sizes and the most viscous water. This work shows the importance of both particle characteristics and size distribution for mass fluxes, and similar methods can be applied to existing and future size‐fractionated filtered particulate measurements to improve our understanding of the biological pump elsewhere.

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