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  1. Core/shell nanoparticles composed of a silica core over which a propargyl methacrylate (PMA) shell was polymerized around were synthesized. To employ the shell coating, the surface of the silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) was modified with an alkene-terminated organometallic silane linker that allowed for the covalent attachment of a poly(propargyl methacrylate) (pPMA) shell. The alkyne groups resulting from the pPMA shell were utilized in copper(I)-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions to attach azide-modified Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pairs of naphthalimide (azNap), rhodamine B (azRhod), and silicon phthalocyanine (azSiPc) derivatives to the shell surface. The luminescence of the system was manipulated by the covalent attachment of one, two, or three of the fluorophores resulting in no energy transfer, one energy transfer, or two energy transfers, respectively. When all three fluorophores were attached to the core/shell particles, an excitation of azNap with a wavelength of 400 nm resulted in the sequential energy transfer between two FRET pairs and the sole emission of azSiPc at 670 nm. These particles may have applications as bioimaging probes as their luminescence is easily detected using fluorescence microscopy.

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  3. Abstract

    Linear polyphosphonates with the generic formula –[P(Ph)(X)OR′O]n– (X = S or Se) have been synthesized by polycondensations of P(Ph)(NEt2)2and a diol (HOR′OH = 1,4‐cyclohexanedimethanol, 1,4‐benzenedimethanol, tetraethylene glycol, or 1,12‐dodecanediol) followed by reaction with a chalcogen. Random copolymers have been synthesized by polycondensations of P(Ph)(NEt2)2and mixture of two of the diols in a 2:1:1 mol ratio followed by reaction with a chalcogen. Block copolymers with the generic formula –[P(Ph)(X)OR′O](x + 2)–[P(Ph)(X)OR′O](x + 3)– (X = S or Se) have been synthesized by the polycondensations of Et2N[P(Ph)(X)OR′O](x + 2)P(Ph)NEt2oligomers with HOR′O[P(Ph)(X)OR′O](x + 3)H oligomers followed by reaction with a chalcogen. The Et2N[P(Ph)(X)OR′O](x + 2)P(Ph)NEt2oligomers are prepared by the reaction of an excess of P(Ph)(NEt2)2with a diol while the HOR′O[P(Ph)(X)OR′O](x + 3)H oligomers are prepared by the reaction of P(Ph)(NEt2)2with an excess of the diol. In each case the excess, x is the same and determines the average block sizes. All of the polymers were characterized using1H,13C{1H}, and31P{1H} NMR spectroscopy, TGA, DSC, and SEC.31P{1H} NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that the random and block copolymers have the expected arrangements of monomers and, in the case of block copolymers, verifies the block sizes. All polymers are thermally stable up to ~300°C, and the arrangements of monomers in the copolymers (block vs. random) affect their degradation temperatures andTgprofiles. The polymers have weight average MWs of up to 3.8 × 104 Da.

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  4. Abstract

    X‐ray radiation exhibits diminished scattering and a greater penetration depth in tissue relative to the visible spectrum and has spawned new medical imaging techniques that exploit X‐ray luminescence of nanoparticles. The majority of the nanoparticles finding applications in this field incorporate metals with high atomic numbers and pose potential toxicity effects. Here, a general strategy for the preparation of a fully organic X‐ray radioluminescent colloidal platform that can be tailored to emit anywhere in the visible spectrum through a judicious choice in donor/acceptor pairing and multiple sequential Förster resonance energy transfers (FRETs) is presented. This is demonstrated with three different types of ≈100 nm particles that are doped with anthracene as the scintillating molecule to “pump” subsequent FRET dye pairs that result in emissions from ≈400 nm out past 700 nm. The particles can be self‐assembled in crystalline colloidal arrays, and the radioluminescence of the particles can be dynamically tuned by coupling the observed rejection wavelength with the dyes' emission.

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    New methacrylate monomers with carbazole moieties as pendant groups were synthesized by multistep syntheses starting from carbazoles with biphenyl substituents in the aromatic ring. The corresponding polymers were prepared using a free‐radical polymerization. The novel polymers containN‐alkylated carbazoles mono‐ or bi‐substituted with biphenyl groups in the aromatic ring.N‐alkyl chains in polymers vary by length and structure. All new polymers were synthesized to evaluate the structural changes in terms of their effect on the energy profile, thermal, dielectric, and photophysical properties when compared to the parent polymer poly(2‐(9H‐carbazol‐9‐yl)ethyl methacrylate). According to the obtained results, these compounds may be well suited for memory resistor devices. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem.2019, 57, 70–76

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