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  1. Biogeochemical properties of soils play a crucial role in soil and stream chemistry throughout a watershed. How water interacts with soils during subsurface flow can have impacts on water quality, thus, it is fundamental to understand where and how certain soil water chemical processes occur within a catchment. In this study, ~200 soil samples were evaluated throughout a small catchment in the Front Range of Colorado, USA to examine spatial and vertical patterns in major soil solutes among different landscape units: riparian areas, alluvial/colluvial fans, and steep hillslopes. Solutes were extracted from the soil samples in the laboratory and analyzed for major cation (Li, K, Mg, Br, and Ca) and anion (F, Cl, NO 2 , NO 3 , PO 4 , and SO 4 ) concentrations using ion chromatography. Concentrations of most solutes were greater in near surface soils (10 cm) than in deeper soils (100 cm) across all landscape units, except for F which increased with depth, suggestive of surface accumulation processes such as dust deposition or enrichment due to biotic cycling. Potassium had the highest variation between depths, ranging from 1.04 mg/l (100 cm) to 3.13 mg/l (10 cm) sampled from riparian landscape units. Nearly every solute was found to be enriched in riparian areas where vegetation was visibly denser, with higher mean concentrations than the hillslopes and fans, except for NO 3 which had higher concentrations in the fans. Br, NO 2 , and PO 4 concentrations were often below the detectable limit, and Li and Na were not variable between depths or landscape units. Ratioed stream water concentrations (K:Na, Ca:Mg, and NO 3 :Cl) vs. discharge relationships compared to the soil solute ratios indicated a hydraulic disconnection between the shallow soils (<100 cm) and the stream. Based on the comparisons among depths and landscape units, our findings suggest that K, Ca, F, and NO 3 solutes may serve as valuable tracers to identify subsurface flowpaths as they are distinct among landscape units and depth within this catchment. However, interflow and/or shallow groundwater flow likely have little direct connection to streamflow generation. 
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  2. This dataset includes monthly dissolved silicon (DSi) concentration data from 198 rivers across the Northern Hemisphere. Concentration and discharge data were sourced from public and/or published datasets and the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season model (Hirsch et al. 2010) was used to estimate monthly concentrations and flow-normalized concentrations for all sites over their period of record. Sites span eight climate zones, ranged from 18 degrees N to 70 degrees N, and vary in drainage area from < 1 km2 to nearly 3 million km2. These monthly concentration data were then used to cluster sites into average (i.e., average of all years) and annual (i.e., each year individually) seasonal regimes using a time-series clustering approach. The annual regimes were used to quantify how often a site moved among regimes over its period of record (i.e., stability). Site characteristics including climate zone, discharge, and concentration-discharge behavior were explored as potential drivers of cluster membership and stability. 
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  3. Abstract

    Land use in Panama has changed dramatically with ongoing deforestation and conversion to cropland and cattle pastures, potentially altering the soil properties that drive the hydrological processes of infiltration and overland flow. We compared plot‐scale overland flow generation between hillslopes in forested and actively cattle‐grazed watersheds in Central Panama. Soil physical and hydraulic properties, soil moisture and overland flow data were measured along hillslopes of each land‐use type. Soil characteristics and rainfall data were input into a simple, 1‐D representative model, HYDRUS‐1D, to simulate overland flow that we used to make inferences about overland flow response at forest and pasture sites. Runoff ratios (overland flow/rainfall) were generally higher at the pasture site, although no overall trends were observed between rainfall characteristics and runoff ratios across the two land uses at the plot scale. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and bulk density were different between the forest and pasture sites (p < 10−4). Simulating overland flow in HYDRUS‐1D produced more outputs similar to the overland flow recorded at the pasture site than the forest site. Results from our study indicate that, at the plot scale, Hortonian overland flow is the main driver for overland flow generation at the pasture site during storms with high‐rainfall totals. We infer that the combination of a leaf litter layer and the activation of shallow preferential flow paths resulting in shallow saturation‐excess overland flow are likely the main drivers for plot scale overland flow generation at the forest site. Results from this study contribute to the broader understanding of the delivery of freshwater to streams, which will become increasingly important in the tropics considering freshwater resource scarcity and changing storm intensities.

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