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  1. Abstract

    We analyze 5108 AFGKM stars with at least five high-precision radial velocity points, as well as Gaia and Hipparcos astrometric data, utilizing a novel pipeline developed in previous work. We find 914 radial velocity signals with periods longer than 1000 days. Around these signals, 167 cold giants and 68 other types of companions are identified, through combined analyses of radial velocity, astrometry, and imaging data. Without correcting for detection bias, we estimate the minimum occurrence rate of the wide-orbit brown dwarfs to be 1.3%, and find a significant brown-dwarf valley around 40MJup. We also find a power-law distribution in the host binary fraction beyond 3 au, similar to that found for single stars, indicating no preference of multiplicity for brown dwarfs. Our work also reveals nine substellar systems (GJ 234 B, GJ 494 B, HD 13724 b, HD 182488 b, HD 39060 b and c, HD 4113 C, HD 42581 d, HD 7449 B, and HD 984 b) that have previously been directly imaged, and many others that are observable at existing facilities. Depending on their ages, we estimate that an additional 10–57 substellar objects within our sample can be detected with current imaging facilities, extending the imaged coldmore »(or old) giants by an order of magnitude.

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  2. Abstract Asteroseismology of bright stars has become increasingly important as a method to determine the fundamental properties (in particular ages) of stars. The Kepler Space Telescope initiated a revolution by detecting oscillations in more than 500 main-sequence and subgiant stars. However, most Kepler stars are faint and therefore have limited constraints from independent methods such as long-baseline interferometry. Here we present the discovery of solar-like oscillations in α Men A, a naked-eye ( V = 5.1) G7 dwarf in TESS’s southern continuous viewing zone. Using a combination of astrometry, spectroscopy, and asteroseismology, we precisely characterize the solar analog α Men A ( T eff = 5569 ± 62 K, R ⋆ = 0.960 ± 0.016 R ⊙ , M ⋆ = 0.964 ± 0.045 M ⊙ ). To characterize the fully convective M dwarf companion, we derive empirical relations to estimate mass, radius, and temperature given the absolute Gaia magnitude and metallicity, yielding M ⋆ = 0.169 ± 0.006 M ⊙ , R ⋆ = 0.19 ± 0.01 R ⊙ , and T eff = 3054 ± 44 K. Our asteroseismic age of 6.2 ± 1.4 (stat) ± 0.6 (sys) Gyr for the primary places α Men B within amore »small population of M dwarfs with precisely measured ages. We combined multiple ground-based spectroscopy surveys to reveal an activity cycle of P = 13.1 ± 1.1 yr for α Men A, a period similar to that observed in the Sun. We used different gyrochronology models with the asteroseismic age to estimate a rotation period of ∼30 days for the primary. Alpha Men A is now the closest ( d = 10 pc) solar analog with a precise asteroseismic age from space-based photometry, making it a prime target for next-generation direct-imaging missions searching for true Earth analogs.« less