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  1. This paper is concerned with numerical algorithms for Biot model. By introducing an intermediate variable, the classical 2-field Biot model is written into a 3-field formulation. Based on such a 3-field formulation, we propose a coupled algorithm, some time-extrapolation based decoupled algorithms, and an iterative decoupled algorithm. Our focus is the analysis of the iterative decoupled algorithm. It is shown that the convergence of the iterative decoupled algorithm requires no extra assumptions on physical parameters or stabilization parameters. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Does interdisciplinary collaboration make a difference when it comes to communicating engineering concepts to community audiences? This research focuses on the effect of communication strategies on community attitudes toward engineering research. Two cohorts of four academic researchers each, representing eight different disciplinary backgrounds (aviation planning, cancer research, math education, musicology, chemical/biomolecular engineering, material science, soil science, and theater) developed research communication outputs for the public by creating: 1) an individual video presenting their research through the lens of their discipline alone; and 2) a convergent video where they collaboratively discussed their research with others in their cohort around a common theme, integrating all of their disciplinary lenses. Using a panel of respondents (n = 2,938) procured through Qualtrics, and purposefully recruited to create a diverse sample in age and racial/ethnic background, the research team randomly assigned respondents to watch one of three video treatments: one individual video, multiple individual videos, or a convergent video. Then, respondents answered a series of questions about their interest and knowledge of several STEM topics, both before and after watching the video(s). This retrospective pre/post questionnaire technique helps to alleviate response-shift bias present in self-assessed changes in learning attitudes. Our findings show that collaborative presentation videos increased self-reported audience interest in engineering, and perceptions of disciplinary relatedness more than the non-collaborative, individual presentations made by the same researchers. These results suggest a beneficial role for collaborative communication strategies to foster interest in engineering among public audiences, even among people without a background in STEM. Further, collaborative communication led to an increased sense of relatedness among different disciplines, which may be useful for effective public research communication about interdisciplinary engineering projects. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Aims. We perform a simulation using the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment of the Orion Trapezium star cluster in which the evolution of the stars and the dynamics of planetary systems are taken into account. Methods. The initial conditions from earlier simulations were selected in which the size and mass distributions of the observed circumstellar disks in this cluster are satisfactorily reproduced. Four, five, or size planets per star were introduced in orbit around the 500 solar-like stars with a maximum orbital separation of 400 au. Results. Our study focuses on the production of free-floating planets. A total of 357 become unbound from a total of 2522 planets in the initial conditions of the simulation. Of these, 281 leave the cluster within the crossing timescale of the star cluster; the others remain bound to the cluster as free-floating intra-cluster planets. Five of these free-floating intra-cluster planets are captured at a later time by another star. Conclusions. The two main mechanisms by which planets are lost from their host star, ejection upon a strong encounter with another star or internal planetary scattering, drive the evaporation independent of planet mass of orbital separation at birth. The effect of small perturbations due to slow changes in the cluster potential are important for the evolution of planetary systems. In addition, the probability of a star to lose a planet is independent of the planet mass and independent of its initial orbital separation. As a consequence, the mass distribution of free-floating planets is indistinguishable from the mass distribution of planets bound to their host star. 
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  4. This study proposes a novel disinfection process by sequential application of peracetic acid (PAA) and ultra-violet light (UV), on the basis of elucidation of disinfection mechanisms under UV/PAA. Results show that hydroxyl radicals, generated by UV-activated PAA, contribute to the enhanced inactivation of Escherichia coli under UV/PAA compared to PAA alone or UV alone. Furthermore, the location of hydroxyl radical generation is a critical factor. Unlike UV/H2O2, which generates hydroxyl radicals mainly in the bulk solution, the hydroxyl radicals under UV/PAA are produced close to or inside E. coli cells, due to PAA diffusion. Therefore, hydroxyl radicals exert significantly stronger disinfection power under UV/PAA than under UV/H2O2 conditions. Pre-exposing E. coli to PAA in the dark followed by application of UV (i.e., a PAA-UV/PAA process) promotes diffusion of PAA to the cells and achieves excellent disinfection efficiency while saving more than half of the energy cost associated with UV compared to simultaneous application of UV and PAA. The effectiveness of this new disinfection strategy has been demonstrated not only in lab water but also in wastewater matrices. 
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  5. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a widely used disinfectant, and combined UV light with PAA (i.e. UV/PAA) can be a novel advanced oxidation process for elimination of water contaminants. This study is among the first to evaluate the photolysis of PAA under UV irradiation (254 nm) and degradation of pharmaceuticals by UV/PAA. PAA exhibited high quantum yields (Φ254nm = 1.20 and 2.09 mol·Einstein−1 for the neutral (PAA0) and anionic (PAA-) species, respectively) and also showed scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals (k•OH/PAA0 = (9.33±0.3)×108 M−1·s−1 and k•OH/PAA- = (9.97±2.3)×109 M−1·s−1). The pharmaceuticals were persistent with PAA alone but degraded rapidly by UV/PAA. The contributions of direct photolysis, hydroxyl radicals, and other radicals to pharmaceutical degradation under UV/PAA were systematically evaluated. Results revealed that •OH was the primary radical responsible for the degradation of carbamazepine and ibuprofen by UV/PAA, whereas CH3C(=O)O• and/or CH3C(=O)O2• contributed significantly to the degradation of naproxen and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid by UV/PAA in addition to •OH. The carbon-centered radicals generated from UV/PAA showed strong reactivity to oxidize certain naphthyl compounds. The new knowledge obtained in this study will facilitate further research and development of UV/PAA as a new degradation strategy for water contaminants. 
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