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  1. Abstract Pinus edulis Engelm. is a short-stature, drought-tolerant tree species that is abundant in piñon-juniper woodlands throughout semiarid ecosystems of the American Southwest. P. edulis is a model species among ecophysiological disciplines, with considerable research focus given to hydraulic functioning and carbon partitioning relating to mechanisms of tree mortality. Many ecological studies require robust estimates of tree structural traits such as biomass, active sapwood area, and leaf area. We harvested twenty trees from Central New Mexico ranging in size from 1.3 to 22.7 cm root crown diameter (RCD) to derive allometric relationships from measurements of RCD, maximum height, canopy areamore »(CA), aboveground biomass (AGB), sapwood area (AS), and leaf area (AL). Total foliar mass was measured from a subset of individuals and scaled to AL from estimates of leaf mass per area. We report a strong nonlinear relationship to AGB as a function of both RCD and height, whereas CA scaled linearly. Total AS expressed a power relationship with RCD. Both AS and CA exhibited strong linear relationships with AL (R2 = 0.99), whereas RCD increased nonlinearly with AL. We improve on current models by expanding the size range of sampled trees and supplement the existing literature for this species. Study Implications: Land managers need to better understand carbon and water dynamics in changing ecosystems to understand how those ecosystems can be sustainably used now and in the future. This study of two-needle pinon (Pinus edulis Engelm.) trees in New Mexico, USA, uses observations from unoccupied aerial vehicles, field measurements, and harvesting followed by laboratory analysis to develop allometric models for this widespread species. These models can be used to understand plant traits such biomass partitioning and sap flow, which in turn will help scientists and land managers better understand the ecosystem services provided by pinon pine across North America.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 30, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  4. We report on the longest body length record for the Philippine Pit Viper, Trimereserus flavomaculatus.
  5. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of vertebrates contains a series of organs beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus or cloacal opening. Each organ represents a unique environment for resident microorganisms. Due to their simple digestive anatomy, snakes are good models for studying microbiome variation along the GIT. Cloacal sampling captures the majority of the microbial diversity found in the GIT of snakes—yet little is known about the oral microbiota of snakes. Most research on the snake mouth and gut microbiota are limited to studies of a single species or captive-bred individuals. It therefore remains unclear how a host’smore »life history, diet, or evolutionary history correlate with differences in the microbial composition within the mouths and guts of wild snakes. We sampled the mouth and gut microbial communities from three species of Asian venomous snakes and utilized 16S rRNA microbial inventories to test if host phylogenetic and ecological differences correlate with distinct microbial compositions within the two body sites. These species occupy three disparate habitat types: marine, semi-arboreal, and arboreal, our results suggest that the diversity of snake mouth and gut microbial communities correlate with differences in both host ecology and phylogeny.« less
  6. Transient reaction modulation has found its place in many branches of chemical reaction engineering over the past hundred years. Historically, catalytic reactions have been dominated by the impulse to reduce spatial and temporal perturbations in favor of steady, static systems due to their ease of operation and scalability. Transient reactor operation, however, has seen remarkable growth in the past few decades, where new operating regimes are being revealed to enhance catalytic reaction rates beyond the statically achievable limits classically described by thermodynamics and the Sabatier principle. These theoretical and experimental studies suggest that there exists a resonant frequency which coincidesmore »with its catalytic turnover that can be exploited and amplified for a given reaction to overcome classical barriers. This review discusses the evolution of thought from thermostatic (equilibrium), to thermodynamic (dynamic equilibrium), and finally dynamic (non-equilibrium) catalysis. Natural and forced dynamic oscillations are explored with periodic reactor operation of catalytic systems that modulate energetics and local concentrations through a multitude of approaches, and the challenges to unlock this new class of catalytic reaction engineering is discussed.« less
  7. Recent studies have highlighted the underestimated diversity of the genus Diploderma Hallowell, 1861 in the Hengduan Mountain Region in Southwest China, but much of the region remains poorly surveyed for reptile diversity. In this study we describe two new species of Diploderma from the upper Jinsha and middle Yalong River Valley, based on evaluations of morphological, genetic, and distribution data. The two new species are morphologically most similar to D. angustelinea and D. vela, but they can be diagnosed from both recognized taxa and all remaining congeners by a suite of morphological features, particularly the distinct coloration of gular spots.more »Additionally, both new species either render other recognized species paraphyletic or are allopatric with respect to their morphologically similar congeners. Furthermore, we rediscover D. brevicaudum in the wild for the first time, which was known from historical museum specimens only. We estimate the phylogenetic position of D. brevicaudum within the genus Diploderma based on mitochondrial genealogy, and we provide an expanded diagnosis and comparisons against closely related congeners and provide a detailed description of coloration in life based on newly collected specimens. Our discoveries of the new Diploderma species further highlight the urgent conservation needs of the currently neglected hot-dry valley ecosystems in the Hengduan Mountain Region of China.« less