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  1. The tools and techniques such as imaging and machine learning used in the measurement of many material and microstructural properties are rapidly evolving. In metals, the grain size is routinely measured to estimate the yield strength. This paper describes some of the algorithms used in processing the microstructures to conduct quantitative measurements. The image processing methods provide the possibility to go beyond calculating the ASTM grain size number and calculate the actual surface area of each grain, grain boundary length, and the shape of the grains. The image analysis methods can be very helpful in conducting detailed quantitative analysis with greater accuracy than many labour-intensive manual methods currently in use. The work describes the complexities in applying the imaging methods and approaches in the metallurgical and materials fields. Successful application of such methods can reduce the time and effort required to characterise microstructures and can provide more precise information. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. Thrash, J. Cameron (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Marine Synechococcus spp. are unicellular cyanobacteria widely distributed in the world’s oceans. We report the complete genome sequence of Synechococcus sp. strain NB0720_010, isolated from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. NB0702_10 has several large (>3,000-amino acid) protein-coding genes that may be important in its interactions with other cells, including grazers in estuarine habitats. 
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  3. Abstract

    The production of metal via the iron disproportionation reaction in the deep Earth has been a long debated topic with important implications for the geochemistry of the lower mantle. To explore the occurrence of the iron disproportionation reaction from 25 to 65 GPa, a natural almandine‐pyrope‐grossular garnet was studied with in situ X‐ray diffraction (XRD) in the laser‐heated diamond anvil cell and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Upon heating the natural almandine‐pyrope‐grossular garnet up to 3000 K up to 65 GPa, the formation of phase assemblage consisting of bridgmanite, stishovite, and davemaoite was confirmed by XRD, but because of the low abundance of Fe metal and small grain size, XRD was determined not to be effective in detecting the disproportionation reaction. Examination of the samples recovered between 39 and 64 GPa by SEM analysis revealed the presence of nm‐scale disproportionated iron metal grains as an additional product of this reaction that was not detectable in the XRD patterns. Volume compression data of bridgmanite synthesized in the experiments were fit to the Birch‐Murnaghan equation of state and compared to similar compositions. Bridgmanite was found to decompress to the LiNbO3‐type structure, indicating a high FeAlO3content, in accordance with the occurrence of a disproportionation reaction. The experimental confirmation of disproportionated metallic Fe has significant implications for the distribution of siderophile and volatile elements in the lower mantle.

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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Abstract

    Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on a carbonate‐silicate‐metal melt were performed to study speciation and coordination changes as a function of pressure and temperature. We examine in detail the bond abundances of specific element pairs and the distribution of coordination environments over conditions spanning Earth’s present‐day mantle. Average coordination numbers increase continuously from 4 to 8 for Fe and Mg, from 4 to 6 for Si, and from 2 to 4 for C from 1 to 148 GPa (4,000 K). Speciation across all pressure and temperature conditions is complex due to the unusual bonding of carbon. With the increasing pressure, C‐C and C‐Fe bonding increase significantly, resulting in the formation of carbon polymers, C‐Fe clusters, and the loss of carbonate groups. The increased bonding of carbon with elements other than oxygen indicates that carbon begins to replace oxygen as an anion in the melt network. We evaluate our results in the context of diamond formation and of metal‐silicate partitioning behavior of carbon. Our work has implications for properties of carbon and metal‐bearing silicate melts, such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, and reactivity with surrounding phases.

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  6. Abstract

    The relative composition of Earth's core and mantle were set during core formation. By determining how elements partition between metal and silicate at high pressures and temperatures, measurements of the mantle composition and geophysical observations of the core can be used to understand the mechanisms by which Earth formed. Here we present the results of metal‐silicate partitioning experiments for a range of nominally lithophile elements (Al, Ca, K, Mg, O, Si, Th, and U) and S to 85 GPa and up to 5400 K. With our results and a compilation of literature data, we developed a parameterization for partitioning that accounts for compositional dependencies in both the metal and silicate phases. Using this parameterization in a range of planetary growth models, we find that, in general, lithophile element partitioning into the metallic phase is enhanced at high temperatures. The relative abundances of FeO, SiO2, and MgO in the mantle vary significantly between planetary growth models, and the mantle abundances of these elements can be used to provide important constraints on Earth's accretion. To match Earth's core mass and mantle composition, Earth's building blocks must have been enriched in Fe and depleted in Si compared with CI chondrites. Finally, too little Mg, Si, and O are partitioned into the core for precipitation of oxides to be a major source of energy for the geodynamo. In contrast, several ppb of U can be partitioned into the core at high temperatures, and this energy source must be accounted for in thermal evolution models.

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  7. Abstract

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope is a silicon pixel detector dedicated to luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment at the LHC. It is located approximately 1.75 m from the interaction point and arranged into 16 “telescopes”, with eight telescopes installed around the beam pipe at either end of the detector and each telescope composed of three individual silicon sensor planes. The per-bunch instantaneous luminosity is measured by counting events where all three planes in the telescope register a hit, using a special readout at the full LHC bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The full pixel information is read out at a lower rate and can be used to determine calibrations, corrections, and systematic uncertainties for the online and offline measurements. This paper details the commissioning, operational history, and performance of the detector during Run 2 (2015–18) of the LHC, as well as preparations for Run 3, which will begin in 2022.

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  8. Abstract

    Since the initial data taking of the CERN LHC, the CMS experiment has undergone substantial upgrades and improvements. This paper discusses the CMS detector as it is configured for the third data-taking period of the CERN LHC, Run 3, which started in 2022. The entire silicon pixel tracking detector was replaced. A new powering system for the superconducting solenoid was installed. The electronics of the hadron calorimeter was upgraded. All the muon electronic systems were upgraded, and new muon detector stations were added, including a gas electron multiplier detector. The precision proton spectrometer was upgraded. The dedicated luminosity detectors and the beam loss monitor were refurbished. Substantial improvements to the trigger, data acquisition, software, and computing systems were also implemented, including a new hybrid CPU/GPU farm for the high-level trigger.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  9. Abstract

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will undergo an upgrade in order to increase its luminosity to 7.5 × 1034cm-2s-1. The increased luminosity during this High-Luminosity running phase, starting around 2029, means a higher rate of proton-proton interactions, hence a larger ionizing dose and particle fluence for the detectors. The current tracking system of the CMS experiment will be fully replaced in order to cope with the new operating conditions. Prototype planar pixel sensors for the CMS Inner Tracker with square 50 μm × 50 μm and rectangular 100 μm × 25 μm pixels read out by the RD53A chip were characterized in the lab and at the DESY-II testbeam facility in order to identify designs that meet the requirements of CMS during the High-Luminosity running phase. A spatial resolution of approximately 3.4 μm (2 μm) is obtained using the modules with 50 μm × 50 μm (100 μm × 25 μm) pixels at the optimal angle of incidence before irradiation. After irradiation to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of Φeq = 5.3 × 1015 cm-2, a resolution of 9.4 μm is achieved at a bias voltage of 800 V using a module with 50 μm × 50 μm pixel size. All modules retain a hit efficiency in excess of 99% after irradiation to fluences up to 2.1 × 1016 cm-2. Further studies of the electrical properties of the modules, especially crosstalk, are also presented in this paper.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  10. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for new physics in top quark production with additional final-state leptons is performed using data collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV at the LHC during 2016–2018. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb1. Using the framework of effective field theory (EFT), potential new physics effects are parametrized in terms of 26 dimension-six EFT operators. The impacts of EFT operators are incorporated through the event-level reweighting of Monte Carlo simulations, which allows for detector-level predictions. The events are divided into several categories based on lepton multiplicity, total lepton charge, jet multiplicity, and b-tagged jet multiplicity. Kinematic variables corresponding to the transverse momentum (pT) of the leading pair of leptons and/or jets as well as thepTof on-shell Z bosons are used to extract the 95% confidence intervals of the 26 Wilson coefficients corresponding to these EFT operators. No significant deviation with respect to the standard model prediction is found.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024