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  1. Abstract Spin-valley locking in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides has attracted enormous interest, since it offers potential for valleytronic and optoelectronic applications. Such an exotic electronic state has sparsely been seen in bulk materials. Here, we report spin-valley locking in a Dirac semimetal BaMnSb 2 . This is revealed by comprehensive studies using first principles calculations, tight-binding and effective model analyses, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements. Moreover, this material also exhibits a stacked quantum Hall effect (QHE). The spin-valley degeneracy extracted from the QHE is close to 2. This result, together with the Landau level spin splitting, further confirms the spin-valley lockingmore »picture. In the extreme quantum limit, we also observed a plateau in the z -axis resistance, suggestive of a two-dimensional chiral surface state present in the quantum Hall state. These findings establish BaMnSb 2 as a rare platform for exploring coupled spin and valley physics in bulk single crystals and accessing 3D interacting topological states.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a sanitizer with increasing use in food, medical and water treatment industries. Amino acids are important components in targeted foods for PAA treatment and ubiquitous in natural waterbodies and wastewater effluents as the primary form of dissolved organic nitrogen. To better understand the possible reactions, this work investigated the reaction kinetics and transformation pathways of selected amino acids towards PAA. Experimental results demonstrated that most amino acids showed sluggish reactivity to PAA except cysteine (CYS), methionine (MET), and histidine (HIS). CYS showed the highest reactivity with a very rapid reaction rate. Reactions of MET and HISmore »with PAA followed second-order kinetics with rate constants of 4.6 ± 0.2, and 1.8 ± 0.1 M−1s−1 at pH 7, respectively. The reactions were faster at pH 5 and 7 than at pH 9 due to PAA speciation. Low concentrations of H2O2 coexistent with PAA contributed little to the oxidation of amino acids. The primary oxidation products of amino acids with PAA were [O] addition compounds on the reactive sites at thiol, thioether and imidazole groups. Theoretical calculations were applied to predict the reactivity and regioselectivity of PAA electrophilic attacks on amino acids and improved mechanistic understanding. As an oxidative disinfectant, the reaction of PAA with organics to form byproducts is inevitable; however, this study shows that PAA exhibits lower and more selective reactivity towards biomolecules such as amino acids than other common disinfectants, causing less concern of toxic disinfection byproducts. This attribute may allow greater stability and more targeted actions of PAA in various applications.« less