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  1. Abstract An array of twelve 0.28 kg lithium molybdate (LMO) low-temperature bolometers equipped with 16 bolometric Ge light detectors, aiming at optimization of detector structure for CROSS and CUPID double-beta decay experiments, was constructed and tested in a low-background pulse-tube-based cryostat at the Canfranc underground laboratory in Spain. Performance of the scintillating bolometers was studied depending on the size of phonon NTD-Ge sensors glued to both LMO and Ge absorbers, shape of the Ge light detectors (circular vs. square, from two suppliers), in different light collection conditions (with and without reflector, with aluminum coated LMO crystal surface). The scintillating bolometer array was operated over 8 months in the low-background conditions that allowed to probe a very low, μBq/kg, level of the LMO crystals radioactive contamination by 228 Th and 226 Ra.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Abstract A low-energy electronic recoil calibration of XENON1T, a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber, with an internal $${}^{37}$$ 37 Ar source was performed. This calibration source features a 35-day half-life and provides two mono-energetic lines at 2.82 keV and 0.27 keV. The photon yield and electron yield at 2.82 keV are measured to be ( $$32.3\,\pm \,0.3$$ 32.3 ± 0.3 ) photons/keV and ( $$40.6\,\pm \,0.5$$ 40.6 ± 0.5 ) electrons/keV, respectively, in agreement with other measurements and with NEST predictions. The electron yield at 0.27 keV is also measured and it is ( $$68.0^{+6.3}_{-3.7}$$ 68 . 0 - 3.7 + 6.3 ) electrons/keV. The $${}^{37}$$ 37 Ar calibration confirms that the detector is well-understood in the energy region close to the detection threshold, with the 2.82 keV line reconstructed at ( $$2.83\,\pm \,0.02$$ 2.83 ± 0.02 ) keV, which further validates the model used to interpret the low-energy electronic recoil excess previously reported by XENON1T. The ability to efficiently remove argon with cryogenic distillation after the calibration proves that $${}^{37}$$ 37 Ar can be considered as a regular calibration source for multi-tonne xenon detectors.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Abstract CUPID is a next-generation bolometric experiment aiming at searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay with ∼250 kg of isotopic mass of 100 Mo. It will operate at ∼10 mK in a cryostat currently hosting a similar-scale bolometric array for the CUORE experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy). CUPID will be based on large-volume scintillating bolometers consisting of 100 Mo-enriched Li 2 MoO 4 crystals, facing thin Ge-wafer-based bolometric light detectors. In the CUPID design, the detector structure is novel and needs to be validated. In particular, the CUORE cryostat presents a high level of mechanical vibrations due to the use of pulse tubes and the effect of vibrations on the detector performance must be investigated. In this paper we report the first test of the CUPID-design bolometric light detectors with NTD-Ge sensors in a dilution refrigerator equipped with a pulse tube in an above-ground lab. Light detectors are characterized in terms of sensitivity, energy resolution, pulse time constants, and noise power spectrum. Despite the challenging noisy environment due to pulse-tube-induced vibrations, we demonstrate that all the four tested light detectors comply with the CUPID goal in terms of intrinsic energy resolution of 100 eV RMS baseline noise. Indeed,more »we have measured 70–90 eV RMS for the four devices, which show an excellent reproducibility. We have also obtained high energy resolutions at the 356 keV line from a 133 Ba source, as good as Ge semiconductor γ detectors in this energy range.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Abstract The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the most sensitive experiment searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ ) in 130 Te. CUORE uses a cryogenic array of 988 TeO 2 calorimeters operated at ∼10 mK with a total mass of 741 kg. To further increase the sensitivity, the detector response must be well understood. Here, we present a non-linear thermal model for the CUORE experiment on a detector-by-detector basis. We have examined both equilibrium and dynamic electro-thermal models of detectors by numerically fitting non-linear differential equations to the detector data of a subset of CUORE channels which are well characterized and representative of all channels. We demonstrate that the hot-electron effect and electric-field dependence of resistance in NTD-Ge thermistors alone are inadequate to describe our detectors' energy-dependent pulse shapes. We introduce an empirical second-order correction factor in the exponential temperature dependence of the thermistor, which produces excellent agreement with energy-dependent pulse shape data up to 6 MeV. We also present a noise analysis using the fitted thermal parameters and show that the intrinsic thermal noise is negligible compared to the observed noise for our detectors.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  7. Abstract The XENON collaboration has published stringent limits on specific dark matter – nucleon recoil spectra from dark matter recoiling on the liquid xenon detector target. In this paper, we present an approximate likelihood for the XENON1T 1 t-year nuclear recoil search applicable to any nuclear recoil spectrum. Alongside this paper, we publish data and code to compute upper limits using the method we present. The approximate likelihood is constructed in bins of reconstructed energy, profiled along the signal expectation in each bin. This approach can be used to compute an approximate likelihood and therefore most statistical results for any nuclear recoil spectrum. Computing approximate results with this method is approximately three orders of magnitude faster than the likelihood used in the original publications of XENON1T, where limits were set for specific families of recoil spectra. Using this same method, we include toy Monte Carlo simulation-derived binwise likelihoods for the upcoming XENONnT experiment that can similarly be used to assess the sensitivity to arbitrary nuclear recoil signatures in its eventual 20 t-year exposure.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023