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  1. Abstract. The oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS;CH3SCH3), emitted from the surface ocean, contributes to theformation of Aitken mode particles and their growth to cloud condensationnuclei (CCN) sizes in remote marine environments. It is not clear whetherother less commonly measured marine-derived, sulfur-containing gases sharesimilar dynamics to DMS and contribute to secondary marine aerosolformation. Here, we present measurements of gas-phase volatile organosulfurmolecules taken with a Vocus proton-transfer-reaction high-resolutiontime-of-flight mass spectrometer during a mesocosm phytoplankton bloomexperiment using coastal seawater. We show that DMS, methanethiol (MeSH;CH3SH), and benzothiazole (C7H5NS) account for on averageover 90 % of total gas-phase sulfur emissions, with non-DMS sulfur sourcesrepresenting 36.8 ± 7.7 % of sulfur emissions during the first 9 d of the experiment in the pre-bloom phase prior to major biologicalgrowth, before declining to 14.5 ± 6.0 % in the latter half of theexperiment when DMS dominates during the bloom and decay phases. The molarratio of DMS to MeSH during the pre-bloom phase (DMS : MeSH = 4.60 ± 0.93) was consistent with the range of previously calculated ambient DMS-to-MeSH sea-to-air flux ratios. As the experiment progressed, the DMS to MeSHemission ratio increased significantly, reaching 31.8 ± 18.7 duringthe bloom and decay. Measurements of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP),heterotrophic bacteria, and enzyme activity in the seawater suggest theDMS : MeSH ratio is a sensitive indicator of the bacterial sulfur demand andthe composition and magnitude of available sulfur sources in seawater. Theevolving DMS : MeSH ratio and the emission of a new aerosol precursor gas,benzothiazole, have important implications for secondary sulfate formationpathways in coastal marine environments. 
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  4. Black carbon (BC) absorbs solar radiation, leading to a strong but uncertain warming effect on climate. A key challenge in modeling and quantifying BC’s radiative effect on climate is predicting enhancements in light absorption that result from internal mixing between BC and other aerosol components. Modeling and laboratory studies show that BC, when mixed with other aerosol components, absorbs more strongly than pure, uncoated BC; however, some ambient observations suggest more variable and weaker absorption enhancement. We show that the lower-than-expected enhancements in ambient measurements result from a combination of two factors. First, the often used spherical, concentric core-shell approximation generally overestimates the absorption by BC. Second, and more importantly, inadequate consideration of heterogeneity in particle-to-particle composition engenders substantial overestimation in absorption by the total particle population, with greater heterogeneity associated with larger model–measurement differences. We show that accounting for these two effects—variability in per-particle composition and deviations from the core-shell approximation—reconciles absorption enhancement predictions with laboratory and field observations and resolves the apparent discrepancy. Furthermore, our consistent model framework provides a path forward for improving predictions of BC’s radiative effect on climate. 
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    Aerosols impact climate, human health, and the chemistry of the atmosphere, and aerosol pH plays a major role in the physicochemical properties of the aerosol. However, there remains uncertainty as to whether aerosols are acidic, neutral, or basic. In this research, we show that the pH of freshly emitted (nascent) sea spray aerosols is significantly lower than that of sea water (approximately four pH units, with pH being a log scale value) and that smaller aerosol particles below 1 μm in diameter have pH values that are even lower. These measurements of nascent sea spray aerosol pH, performed in a unique ocean−atmosphere facility, provide convincing data to show that acidification occurs “across the interface” within minutes, when aerosols formed from ocean surface waters become airborne. We also show there is a correlation between aerosol acidity and dissolved carbon dioxide but no correlation with marine biology within the seawater. We discuss the mechanisms and contributing factors to this acidity and its implications on atmospheric chemistry. 
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  6. Marine aerosols strongly influence climate through their interactions with solar radiation and clouds. However, significant questions remain regarding the influences of biological activity and seawater chemistry on the flux, chemical composition, and climate-relevant properties of marine aerosols and gases. Wave channels, a traditional tool of physical oceanography, have been adapted for large-scale ocean-atmosphere mesocosm experiments in the laboratory. These experiments enable the study of aerosols under controlled conditions which isolate the marine system from atmospheric anthropogenic and terrestrial influences. Here, we present an overview of the 2019 Sea Spray Chemistry and Particle Evolution (SeaSCAPE) study, which was conducted in an 11 800 L wave channel which was modified to facilitate atmospheric measurements. The SeaSCAPE campaign sought to determine the influence of biological activity in seawater on the production of primary sea spray aerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and secondary marine aerosols. Notably, the SeaSCAPE experiment also focused on understanding how photooxidative aging processes transform the composition of marine aerosols. In addition to a broad range of aerosol, gas, and seawater measurements, we present key results which highlight the experimental capabilities during the campaign, including the phytoplankton bloom dynamics, VOC production, and the effects of photochemical aging on aerosol production, morphology, and chemical composition. Additionally, we discuss the modifications made to the wave channel to improve aerosol production and reduce background contamination, as well as subsequent characterization experiments. The SeaSCAPE experiment provides unique insight into the connections between marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and climate-relevant aerosol properties, and demonstrates how an ocean-atmosphere-interaction facility can be used to isolate and study reactions in the marine atmosphere in the laboratory under more controlled conditions. 
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