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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 18, 2022
  2. The computer vision world has been re-gaining enthusiasm in various pre-trained models, including both classical ImageNet supervised pre-training and recently emerged self-supervised pre-training such as simCLR and MoCo. Pre-trained weights often boost a wide range of downstream tasks including classification, detection, and segmentation. Latest studies suggest that pre-training benefits from gigantic model capacity. We are hereby curious and ask: after pre-training, does a pre-trained model indeed have to stay large for its downstream transferability? In this paper, we examine supervised and self-supervised pre-trained models through the lens of the lottery ticket hypothesis (LTH). LTH identifies highly sparse matching subnetworks thatmore »can be trained in isolation from (nearly) scratch yet still reach the full models' performance. We extend the scope of LTH and question whether matching subnetworks still exist in pre-trained computer vision models, that enjoy the same downstream transfer performance. Our extensive experiments convey an overall positive message: from all pre-trained weights obtained by ImageNet classification, simCLR, and MoCo, we are consistently able to locate such matching subnetworks at 59.04% to 96.48% sparsity that transfer universally to multiple downstream tasks, whose performance see no degradation compared to using full pre-trained weights. Further analyses reveal that subnetworks found from different pre-training tend to yield diverse mask structures and perturbation sensitivities. We conclude that the core LTH observations remain generally relevant in the pre-training paradigm of computer vision, but more delicate discussions are needed in some cases.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2022
  3. In natural language processing (NLP), enormous pre-trained models like BERT have become the standard starting point for training on a range of downstream tasks, and similar trends are emerging in other areas of deep learning. In parallel, work on the lottery ticket hypothesis has shown that models for NLP and computer vision contain smaller matching subnetworks capable of training in isolation to full accuracy and transferring to other tasks. In this work, we combine these observations to assess whether such trainable, transferrable subnetworks exist in pre-trained BERT models. For a range of downstream tasks, we indeed find matching subnetworks atmore »40% to 90% sparsity. We find these subnetworks at (pre-trained) initialization, a deviation from prior NLP research where they emerge only after some amount of training. Subnetworks found on the masked language modeling task (the same task used to pre-train the model) transfer universally; those found on other tasks transfer in a limited fashion if at all. As large-scale pre-training becomes an increasingly central paradigm in deep learning, our results demonstrate that the main lottery ticket observations remain relevant in this context.« less
  4. Predicting the number of clock cycles a processor takes to execute a block of assembly instructions in steady state (the throughput) is important for both compiler designers and performance engineers. Building an analytical model to do so is especially complicated in modern x86-64 Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) machines with sophisticated processor microarchitectures in that it is tedious, error prone, and must be performed from scratch for each processor generation. In this paper we present Ithemal, the first tool which learns to predict the throughput of a set of instructions. Ithemal uses a hierarchical LSTM–based approach to predict throughput basedmore »on the opcodes and operands of instructions in a basic block. We show that Ithemal is more accurate than state-of-the-art hand-written tools currently used in compiler backends and static machine code analyzers. In particular, our model has less than half the error of state-of-the-art analytical models (LLVM’s llvm-mca and Intel’s IACA). Ithemal is also able to predict these throughput values just as fast as the aforementioned tools, and is easily ported across a variety of processor microarchitectures with minimal developer effort.« less