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  1. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) sub-kiloparsec- to kiloparsec-scale resolution observations of the [C II], CO (9–8), and OH+(11–01) lines along with their dust continuum emission toward the far-infrared (FIR) luminous quasar SDSS J231038.88+185519.7 atz = 6.0031, to study the interstellar medium distribution, the gas kinematics, and the quasar-host system dynamics. We decompose the intensity maps of the [C II] and CO (9–8) lines and the dust continuum with two-dimensional elliptical Sérsic models. The [C II] brightness follows a flat distribution with a Sérsic index of 0.59. The CO (9–8) line and the dust continuum can be fit with an unresolved nuclear component and an extended Sérsic component with a Sérsic index of ∼1, which may correspond to the emission from an active galactic nucleus dusty molecular torus and a quasar host galaxy, respectively. The different [C II] spatial distribution may be due to the effect of the high dust opacity, which increases the FIR background radiation on the [C II] line, especially in the galaxy center, significantly suppressing the [C II] emission profile. The dust temperature drops with distance from the center. The effective radius of the dust continuum is smaller than that of the line emission and the dust mass surface density, but is consistent with that of the star formation rate surface density. This may indicate that the dust emission is a less robust tracer of the dust and gas distribution but is a decent tracer of the obscured star formation activity. The OH+(11–01) line shows a P-Cygni profile with an absorption at ∼–400 km s−1, which may indicate an outflow with a neutral gas mass of (6.2 ± 1.2)×108Malong the line of sight. We employed a three-dimensional tilted ring model to fit the [C II] and CO (9–8) data cubes. The two lines are both rotation dominated and trace identical disk geometries and gas motions. This suggest that the [C II] and CO (9–8) gas are coplanar and corotating in this quasar host galaxy. The consistent circular velocities measured with [C II] and CO (9–8) lines indicate that these two lines trace a similar gravitational potential. We decompose the circular rotation curve measured from the kinematic model fit to the [C II] line into four matter components (black hole, stars, gas, and dark matter). The quasar-starburst system is dominated by baryonic matter inside the central few kiloparsecs. We constrain the black hole mass to be 2.97+0.51-0.77 × 109M; this is the first time that the dynamical mass of a black hole has been measured atz ∼ 6. This mass is consistent with that determined using the scaling relations from quasar emission lines. A massive stellar component (on the order of 109M) may have already existed when the Universe was only ∼0.93 Gyr old. The relations between the black hole mass and the baryonic mass of this quasar indicate that the central supermassive black hole may have formed before its host galaxy.

     
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  2. We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array S - (2–4 GHz), C - (4–8 GHz), and X -band (8–12 GHz) continuum observations toward seven radio-loud quasars at z  > 5. This sample has previously been found to exhibit spectral peaks at observed-frame frequencies above ∼1 GHz. We also present upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (uGMRT) band-2 (200 MHz), band-3 (400 MHz), and band-4 (650 MHz) radio continuum observations toward eight radio-loud quasars at z  > 5, selected from our previous GMRT survey, in order to sample their low-frequency synchrotron emission. Combined with archival radio continuum observations, all ten targets show evidence for spectral turnover. The turnover frequencies are ∼1–50 GHz in the rest frame, making these targets gigahertz-peaked-spectrum or high-frequency-peaker candidates. For the nine well-constrained targets with observations on both sides of the spectral turnover, we fit the entire radio spectrum with absorption models associated with synchrotron self-absorption and free-free absorption (FFA). Our results show that FFA in an external inhomogeneous medium can accurately describe the observed spectra for all nine targets, which may indicate an FFA origin for the radio spectral turnover in our sample. As for the complex spectrum of J114657.79+403708.6 at z  = 5.00 with two spectral peaks, it may be caused by multiple components (i.e., core-jet) and FFA by the high-density medium in the nuclear region. However, we cannot rule out the spectral turnover origin of variability. Based on our radio spectral modeling, we calculate the radio loudness R 2500 Å for our sample, which ranges from 12 −1 +1 to 674 −51 +61 . 
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  3. Abstract We report deep Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the optically ultraluminous and radio-quiet quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 (hereafter J0100+2802) at redshift z = 6.3. We detected the radio continuum emission at 1.5 GHz, 6 GHz, and 10 GHz. This leads to a radio power-law spectral index of α = −0.52 ± 0.18 ( S ∝ ν α ). The radio source is unresolved in all VLA bands with an upper limit to the size of 0.″2 (i.e., ∼1.1 kpc) at 10 GHz. We find variability in the flux density (increase by ∼33%) and the spectral index (steepened) between observations in 2016 and 2017. We also find that the VLA 1.5 GHz flux density observed in the same year is 1.5 times that detected with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) in 2016 at the same frequency. This difference suggests that half of the radio emission from J0100+2802 comes from a compact core within 40 pc, and the rest comes from the surrounding few-kiloparsec area, which is diffuse and resolved out in the VLBA observations. The diffuse emission is 4 times brighter than what would be expected if driven by star formation. We conclude that the central active galactic nucleus is the dominant power engine of the radio emission in J0100+2802. 
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  4. Abstract

    This paper presents the design and deployment of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) phase II system. HERA is designed as a staged experiment targeting 21 cm emission measurements of the Epoch of Reionization. First results from the phase I array are published as of early 2022, and deployment of the phase II system is nearing completion. We describe the design of the phase II system and discuss progress on commissioning and future upgrades. As HERA is a designated Square Kilometre Array pathfinder instrument, we also show a number of “case studies” that investigate systematics seen while commissioning the phase II system, which may be of use in the design and operation of future arrays. Common pathologies are likely to manifest in similar ways across instruments, and many of these sources of contamination can be mitigated once the source is identified.

     
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  5. We investigate the molecular gas content of z  ∼ 6 quasar host galaxies using the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique Northern Extended Millimeter Array. We targeted the 3 mm dust continuum, and the line emission from CO(6–5), CO(7–6), and [C  I ] 2−1 in ten infrared–luminous quasars that have been previously studied in their 1 mm dust continuum and [C  II ] line emission. We detected CO(7–6) at various degrees of significance in all the targeted sources, thus doubling the number of such detections in z  ∼ 6 quasars. The 3 mm to 1 mm flux density ratios are consistent with a modified black body spectrum with a dust temperature T dust  ∼ 47 K and an optical depth τ ν  = 0.2 at the [C  II ] frequency. Our study provides us with four independent ways to estimate the molecular gas mass, M H2 , in the targeted quasars. This allows us to set constraints on various parameters used in the derivation of molecular gas mass estimates, such as the mass per luminosity ratios α CO and α [CII] , the gas-to-dust mass ratio δ g/d , and the carbon abundance [C]/H 2 . Leveraging either on the dust, CO, [C  I ], or [C  II ] emission yields mass estimates of the entire sample in the range M H2  ∼ 10 10 –10 11 M ⊙ . We compared the observed luminosities of dust, [C  II ], [C  I ], and CO(7–6) with predictions from photo-dissociation and X-ray dominated regions. We find that the former provide better model fits to our data, assuming that the bulk of the emission arises from dense ( n H  > 10 4 cm −3 ) clouds with a column density N H  ∼ 10 23 cm −2 , exposed to a radiation field with an intensity of G 0  ∼ 10 3 (in Habing units). Our analysis reiterates the presence of massive reservoirs of molecular gas fueling star formation and nuclear accretion in z  ∼ 6 quasar host galaxies. It also highlights the power of combined 3 mm and 1 mm observations for quantitative studies of the dense gas content in massive galaxies at cosmic dawn. 
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  7. We present Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 323 MHz radio continuum observations toward 13 radio-loud quasars at z  >  5, sampling the low-frequency synchrotron emission from these objects. Among the 12 targets successfully observed, we detected 10 above 4 σ significance, while 2 remain undetected. All of the detected sources appear as point sources. Combined with previous radio continuum detections from the literature, 9 quasars have power-law spectral energy distributions throughout the radio range; for some the flux density drops with increasing frequency while it increases for others. Two of these sources appear to have spectral turnover. For the power-law-like sources, the power-law indices have a positive range between 0.18 and 0.67 and a negative values between −0.90 and −0.27. For the turnover sources, the radio peaks around ∼1 and ∼10 GHz in the rest frame, the optically thin indices are −0.58 and −0.90, and the optically thick indices are 0.50 and 1.20. A magnetic field and spectral age analysis of SDSS J114657.59+403708.6 at z  = 5.01 may indicate that the turnover is not caused by synchrotron self-absorption, but rather by free-free absorption by the high-density medium in the nuclear region. Alternatively, the apparent turnover may be an artifact of source variability. Finally, we calculated the radio loudness R 2500 Å for our sample, which spans a very wide range from 12 −13 +13 to 4982 −254 +279 . 
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  8. ABSTRACT

    To mitigate the effects of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on the data analysis pipelines of 21 cm interferometric instruments, numerous inpaint techniques have been developed. In this paper, we examine the qualitative and quantitative errors introduced into the visibilities and power spectrum due to inpainting. We perform our analysis on simulated data as well as real data from the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) Phase 1 upper limits. We also introduce a convolutional neural network that is capable of inpainting RFI corrupted data. We train our network on simulated data and show that our network is capable of inpainting real data without requiring to be retrained. We find that techniques that incorporate high wavenumbers in delay space in their modelling are best suited for inpainting over narrowband RFI. We show that with our fiducial parameters discrete prolate spheroidal sequences (dpss) and clean provide the best performance for intermittent RFI while Gaussian progress regression (gpr) and least squares spectral analysis (lssa) provide the best performance for larger RFI gaps. However, we caution that these qualitative conclusions are sensitive to the chosen hyperparameters of each inpainting technique. We show that all inpainting techniques reliably reproduce foreground dominated modes in the power spectrum. Since the inpainting techniques should not be capable of reproducing noise realizations, we find that the largest errors occur in the noise dominated delay modes. We show that as the noise level of the data comes down, clean and dpss are most capable of reproducing the fine frequency structure in the visibilities.

     
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