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  1. This paper provides a brief introduction to the set of four manuscripts in the special issue. To provide a foundation for the issue, key terms are defined, a brief historical overview of validity is provided, and a description of several different validation approaches used in the issue are explained. Finally, the contribution of the manuscripts to further articulating argument-based validation approaches is discussed, along with questions for the field to consider.
  2. Gravitational waves provide a unique tool for observational astronomy. While the first LIGO–Virgo catalogue of gravitational wave transients (GWTC-1) contains 11 signals from black hole and neutron star binaries, the number of observations is increasing rapidly as detector sensitivity improves. To extract information from the observed signals, it is imperative to have fast, flexible, and scalable inference techniques. In a previous paper, we introduced BILBY: a modular and user-friendly Bayesian inference library adapted to address the needs of gravitational-wave inference. In this work, we demonstrate that BILBY produces reliable results for simulated gravitational-wave signals from compact binary mergers, and verifymore »that it accurately reproduces results reported for the 11 GWTC-1 signals. Additionally, we provide configuration and output files for all analyses to allow for easy reproduction, modification, and future use. This work establishes that BILBY is primed and ready to analyse the rapidly growing population of compact binary coalescence gravitational-wave signals.« less
  3. As early as Descartes (1637/1970), logic and reason have been positioned as tools for individuals to advance their own understanding. By contrast, argumentation is an interactive, social exercise used for persuasion, collective cognition, and to advance shared knowledge (Mercier & Sperber, 2011, 2017). When one advances an argument, subjects it to the tests and challenges of others, and responds to questions and counterarguments, one’s thinking improves (Mercier & Sperber, 2017). Through argumentation, groups produce correct solutions more often than individuals (Moshman & Geil, 1998) and individual accuracy improves as well (Castelain, Girotto, Jamet, & Mercier, 2016). Since it was formallymore »introduced by Kane (1990, 1992), the argument-based approach to validation has been promoted in the field of educational and psychological measurement as the preferred method for validating interpretations and uses of test scores (AERA, APA, & NCME, 2014; Kane, 2013; Schilling & Hill, 2007). Scholars continue to debate the best approaches for developing and supporting validity arguments, however (for examples, see Brennan, 2013; Kane, 2007).« less
  4. The purpose of this working group is to continue to bring together scholars with an interest in examining the use of and access to large-scale quantitative tools used to measure student- and teacher-related outcomes in mathematics education. The working group session will focus on (1) updating the workgroup on the progress made since the first working group at PME-NA in Tucson, Arizona, specifically focusing on the outcomes of the Validity Evidence for Measurement in Mathematics Education conference that took place in April, 2017, in San Antonio, (2) continued development of a document of available tools and their associated validity evidence,more »and (3) identification of potential follow-up activities to continue this work. The efforts of the group will be summarized and extended through both social media tools and online collaboration tools to further promote this work.« less
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  7. Abstract We search for gravitational-wave signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift satellites during the second half of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 November 1 15:00 UTC–2020 March 27 17:00 UTC). We conduct two independent searches: a generic gravitational-wave transients search to analyze 86 GRBs and an analysis to target binary mergers with at least one neutron star as short GRB progenitors for 17 events. We find no significant evidence for gravitational-wave signals associated with any of these GRBs. A weighted binomial test of the combined results finds nomore »evidence for subthreshold gravitational-wave signals associated with this GRB ensemble either. We use several source types and signal morphologies during the searches, resulting in lower bounds on the estimated distance to each GRB. Finally, we constrain the population of low-luminosity short GRBs using results from the first to the third observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. The resulting population is in accordance with the local binary neutron star merger rate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  9. Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) span the approximate mass range 100−10 5   M ⊙ , between black holes (BHs) that formed by stellar collapse and the supermassive BHs at the centers of galaxies. Mergers of IMBH binaries are the most energetic gravitational-wave sources accessible by the terrestrial detector network. Searches of the first two observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo did not yield any significant IMBH binary signals. In the third observing run (O3), the increased network sensitivity enabled the detection of GW190521, a signal consistent with a binary merger of mass ∼150  M ⊙ providing direct evidencemore »of IMBH formation. Here, we report on a dedicated search of O3 data for further IMBH binary mergers, combining both modeled (matched filter) and model-independent search methods. We find some marginal candidates, but none are sufficiently significant to indicate detection of further IMBH mergers. We quantify the sensitivity of the individual search methods and of the combined search using a suite of IMBH binary signals obtained via numerical relativity, including the effects of spins misaligned with the binary orbital axis, and present the resulting upper limits on astrophysical merger rates. Our most stringent limit is for equal mass and aligned spin BH binary of total mass 200  M ⊙ and effective aligned spin 0.8 at 0.056 Gpc −3 yr −1 (90% confidence), a factor of 3.5 more constraining than previous LIGO-Virgo limits. We also update the estimated rate of mergers similar to GW190521 to 0.08 Gpc −3 yr −1 .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023