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    Detailed chemical studies of F/G/K – or solar-type – stars have long been routine in stellar astrophysics, enabling studies in both Galactic chemodynamics and exoplanet demographics. However, similar understanding of the chemistry of M and late-K dwarfs – the most common stars in the Galaxy – has been greatly hampered both observationally and theoretically by the complex molecular chemistry of their atmospheres. Here, we present a new implementation of the data-driven Cannon model, modelling Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and [Ti/Fe] trained on low–medium resolution optical spectra (4000–7000  Å) from 103 cool dwarf benchmarks. Alongside this, we also investigate the sensitivity of optical wavelengths to various atomic and molecular species using both data-driven and theoretical means via a custom grid of MARCS synthetic spectra, and make recommendations for where MARCS struggles to reproduce cool dwarf fluxes. Under leave-one-out cross-validation, our Cannon model is capable of recovering Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and [Ti/Fe] with precisions of 1.4 per cent, $\pm 0.04\,$ dex, $\pm 0.10\,$ dex, and $\pm 0.06\,$ dex respectively, with the recovery of [Ti/Fe] pointing to the as-yet mostly untapped potential of exploiting the abundant – but complex – chemical information within optical spectra of cool stars.

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  2. Abstract

    We presentKorg, a new package for 1D LTE spectral synthesis of FGK stars, which computes theoretical spectra from the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, and implements both plane-parallel and spherical radiative transfer. We outline the inputs and internals ofKorg, and compare synthetic spectra fromKorg,Moog,Turbospectrum, andSME. The disagreements betweenKorgand the other codes are no larger than those between the other codes, although disagreement between codes is substantial. We examine the case of a C2band in detail, finding that uncertainties on physical inputs to spectral synthesis account for a significant fraction of the disagreement.Korgis 1–100 times faster than other codes in typical use, compatible with automatic differentiation libraries, and easily extensible, making it ideal for statistical inference and parameter estimation applied to large data sets. Documentation and installation instructions are available at

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  3. Abstract

    Stars that formed with an initial mass of over 50Mare very rare today, but they are thought to be more common in the early Universe. The fates of those early, metal-poor, massive stars are highly uncertain. Most are expected to directly collapse to black holes, while some may explode as a result of rotationally powered engines or the pair-creation instability. We present the chemical abundances of J0931+0038, a nearby low-mass star identified in early follow-up of the SDSS-V Milky Way Mapper, which preserves the signature of unusual nucleosynthesis from a massive star in the early Universe. J0931+0038 has a relatively high metallicity ([Fe/H] = −1.76 ± 0.13) but an extreme odd–even abundance pattern, with some of the lowest known abundance ratios of [N/Fe], [Na/Fe], [K/Fe], [Sc/Fe], and [Ba/Fe]. The implication is that a majority of its metals originated in a single extremely metal-poor nucleosynthetic source. An extensive search through nucleosynthesis predictions finds a clear preference for progenitors with initial mass >50M, making J0931+0038 one of the first observational constraints on nucleosynthesis in this mass range. However, the full abundance pattern is not matched by any models in the literature. J0931+0038 thus presents a challenge for the next generation of nucleosynthesis models and motivates the study of high-mass progenitor stars impacted by convection, rotation, jets, and/or binary companions. Though rare, more examples of unusual early nucleosynthesis in metal-poor stars should be found in upcoming large spectroscopic surveys.

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  4. Abstract

    Orbital characteristics based on Gaia Early Data Release 3 astrometric parameters are analyzed for ∼4000 metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] ≤ −0.8) compiled from the Best and Brightest survey. Selected as metal-poor candidates based on broadband near- and far-IR photometry, 43% of these stars had medium-resolution (1200 ≲R≲ 2000) validation spectra obtained over a 7 yr campaign from 2014 to 2020 with a variety of telescopes. The remaining stars were chosen based on photometric metallicity determinations from the Huang et al. recalibration of the Sky Mapper Southern Survey. Dynamical clusters of these stars are obtained from the orbital energy and cylindrical actions using theHDBSCANunsupervised learning algorithm. We identify 52 dynamically tagged groups (DTGs) with between five and 21 members; 18 DTGs have at least 10 member stars. Milky Way (MW) substructures such as Gaia-Sausage-Enceladus, the Metal-Weak Thick-Disk, Thamnos, the Splashed Disk, and the Helmi Stream are identified. Associations with MW globular clusters are determined for eight DTGs; no recognized MW dwarf galaxies were associated with any of our DTGs. Previously identified dynamical groups are also associated with our DTGs, with emphasis placed on their structural determination and possible new identifications. Chemically peculiar stars are identified as members of several DTGs, with six DTGs that are associated withr-process-enhanced stars. We demonstrate that the mean carbon andα-element abundances of our DTGs are correlated with their mean metallicity in an understandable manner. Similarly, we find that the mean metallicity, carbon, andα-element abundances are separable into different regions of the mean rotational-velocity space.

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  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Abstract The eighteenth data release (DR18) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the first one for SDSS-V, the fifth generation of the survey. SDSS-V comprises three primary scientific programs or “Mappers”: the Milky Way Mapper (MWM), the Black Hole Mapper (BHM), and the Local Volume Mapper. This data release contains extensive targeting information for the two multiobject spectroscopy programs (MWM and BHM), including input catalogs and selection functions for their numerous scientific objectives. We describe the production of the targeting databases and their calibration and scientifically focused components. DR18 also includes ∼25,000 new SDSS spectra and supplemental information for X-ray sources identified by eROSITA in its eFEDS field. We present updates to some of the SDSS software pipelines and preview changes anticipated for DR19. We also describe three value-added catalogs (VACs) based on SDSS-IV data that have been published since DR17, and one VAC based on the SDSS-V data in the eFEDS field. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024