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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 21, 2023
  3. Ultrafast excited state processes of transition metal complexes (TMCs) are governed by complicated interplays between electronic and nuclear dynamics, which demand a detailed understanding to achieve optimal functionalities of photoactive TMC-based materials for many applications. In this work, we investigated a cyclometalated platinum( ii ) dimer known to undergo a Pt–Pt bond contraction in the metal–metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MMLCT) excited state using femtosecond broadband transient absorption (fs-BBTA) spectroscopy in combination with geometry optimization and normal mode calculations. Using a sub-20 fs pump and broadband probe pulses in fs-BBTA spectroscopy, we were able to correlate the coherent vibrational wavepacket (CVWP) evolution with the stimulated emission (SE) dynamics of the 1 MMLCT state. The results demonstrated that the 145 cm −1 CVWP motions with the damping times of ∼0.9 ps and ∼2 ps originate from coherent Pt–Pt stretching vibrations in the singlet and triplet MMLCT states, respectively. On the basis of excited state potential energy surface calculations in our previous work, we rationalized that the CVWP transfer from the Franck–Condon (FC) state to the 3 MMLCT state was mediated by a triplet ligand-centered ( 3 LC) intermediate state through two step intersystem crossing (ISC) on a time scale shorter than a period of themore »Pt–Pt stretching wavepacket motions. Moreover, it was found that the CVWP motion had 110 cm −1 frequency decays with the damping time of ∼0.2 ps, matching the time constant of 0.253 ps, corresponding to a redshift in the SE feature at early times. This observation indicates that the Pt–Pt bond contraction changes the stretching frequency from 110 to 145 cm −1 and stabilizes the 1 MMLCT state relative to the 3 LC state with a ∼0.2 ps time scale. Thus, the ultrafast ISC from the 1 MMLCT to the 3 LC states occurs before the Pt–Pt bond shortening. The findings herein provide insight into understanding the impact of Pt–Pt bond contraction on the ultrafast branching of the 1 MMLCT population into the direct ( 1 MMLCT → 3 MMLCT) and indirect ISC pathways ( 1 MMLCT → 3 LC → 3 MMLCT) in the Pt( ii ) dimer. These results revealed intricate excited state electronic and nuclear motions that could steer the reaction pathways with a level of detail that has not been achieved before.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 16, 2023
  5. The current investigation demonstrates highly efficient photochemical upconversion (UC) where a long-lived Zr( iv ) ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) complex serves as a triplet photosensitizer in concert with well-established 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) along with newly conceived DPA–carbazole based acceptors/annihilators in THF solutions. The initial dynamic triplet–triplet energy transfer (TTET) processes (Δ G ∼ −0.19 eV) featured very large Stern–Volmer quenching constants ( K SV ) approaching or achieving 10 5 M −1 with bimolecular rate constants between 2 and 3 × 10 8 M −1 s −1 as ascertained using static and transient spectroscopic techniques. Both the TTET and subsequent triplet–triplet annihilation (TTA) processes were verified and throughly investigated using transient absorption spectroscopy. The Stern–Volmer metrics support 95% quenching of the Zr( iv ) photosensitizer using modest concentrations (0.25 mM) of the various acceptor/annihilators, where no aggregation took place between any of the chromophores in THF. Each of the upconverting formulations operated with continuous-wave linear incident power dependence ( λ ex = 514.5 nm) down to ultralow excitation power densities under optimized experimental conditions. Impressive record-setting η UC values ranging from 31.7% to 42.7% were achieved under excitation conditions (13 mW cm −2 ) below that of solar flux integrated acrossmore »the Zr( iv ) photosensitizer's absorption band (26.7 mW cm −2 ). This study illustrates the importance of supporting the continued development and discovery of molecular-based triplet photosensitizers based on earth-abundant metals.« less
  6. A quaternary segmented flow regime for robust and flexible continuous biphasic chemical processes is introduced and characterized for stability and dynamic properties through over 1500 automatically conducted experiments. The flow format is then used for the continuous flow ligand exchange of cadmium selenide quantum dots under high intensity ultraviolet illumination for improved photoluminescence quantum yield.