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  1. Various forms of artificial intelligence (AI) applications are being deployed and used in many healthcare systems. As the use of these applications increases, we are learning the failures of these models and how they can perpetuate bias. With these new lessons, we need to prioritize bias evaluation and mitigation for radiology applications; all the while not ignoring the impact of changes in the larger enterprise AI deployment which may have downstream impact on performance of AI models. In this paper, we provide an updated review of known pitfalls causing AI bias and discuss strategies for mitigating these biases within the context of AI deployment in the larger healthcare enterprise. We describe these pitfalls by framing them in the larger AI lifecycle from problem definition, data set selection and curation, model training and deployment emphasizing that bias exists across a spectrum and is a sequela of a combination of both human and machine factors.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. Abstract Computational methods from reinforcement learning have shown promise in inferring treatment strategies for hypotension management and other clinical decision-making challenges. Unfortunately, the resulting models are often difficult for clinicians to interpret, making clinical inspection and validation of these computationally derived strategies challenging in advance of deployment. In this work, we develop a general framework for identifying succinct sets of clinical contexts in which clinicians make very different treatment choices, tracing the effects of those choices, and inferring a set of recommendations for those specific contexts. By focusing on these few key decision points, our framework produces succinct, interpretable treatment strategies that can each be easily visualized and verified by clinical experts. This interrogation process allows clinicians to leverage the model’s use of historical data in tandem with their own expertise to determine which recommendations are worth investigating further e.g. at the bedside. We demonstrate the value of this approach via application to hypotension management in the ICU, an area with critical implications for patient outcomes that lacks data-driven individualized treatment strategies; that said, our framework has broad implications on how to use computational methods to assist with decision-making challenges on a wide range of clinical domains. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Abstract

    The strain on healthcare resources brought forth by the recent COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for efficient resource planning and allocation through the prediction of future consumption. Machine learning can predict resource utilization such as the need for hospitalization based on past medical data stored in electronic medical records (EMR). We conducted this study on 3194 patients (46% male with mean age 56.7 (±16.8), 56% African American, 7% Hispanic) flagged as COVID-19 positive cases in 12 centers under Emory Healthcare network from February 2020 to September 2020, to assess whether a COVID-19 positive patient’s need for hospitalization can be predicted at the time of RT-PCR test using the EMR data prior to the test. Five main modalities of EMR, i.e., demographics, medication, past medical procedures, comorbidities, and laboratory results, were used as features for predictive modeling, both individually and fused together using late, middle, and early fusion. Models were evaluated in terms of precision, recall, F1-score (within 95% confidence interval). The early fusion model is the most effective predictor with 84% overall F1-score [CI 82.1–86.1]. The predictive performance of the model drops by 6 % when using recent clinical data while omitting the long-term medical history. Feature importance analysis indicates that history of cardiovascular disease, emergency room visits in the past year prior to testing, and demographic factors are predictive of the disease trajectory. We conclude that fusion modeling using medical history and current treatment data can forecast the need for hospitalization for patients infected with COVID-19 at the time of the RT-PCR test.

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