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  1. At room temperature, the quantum contribution to the kinetic energy of a water molecule exceeds the classical contribution by an order of magnitude. The quantum kinetic energy (QKE) of a water molecule is modulated by its local chemical environment and leads to uneven partitioning of isotopes between different phases in thermal equilibrium, which would not occur if the nuclei behaved classically. In this work, we use ab initio path integral simulations to show that QKEs of the water molecules and the equilibrium isotope fractionation ratios of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes are sensitive probes of the hydrogen bonding structures in aqueous ionic solutions. In particular, we demonstrate how the QKE of water molecules in path integral simulations can be decomposed into translational, rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, and use them to determine the impact of solvation on different molecular motions. By analyzing the QKEs and isotope fractionation ratios, we show how the addition of the Na + , Cl − and HPO 4 2− ions perturbs the competition between quantum effects in liquid water and impacts their local solvation structures.
  2. Abstract In recent years, we have been witnessing a paradigm shift in computational materials science. In fact, traditional methods, mostly developed in the second half of the XXth century, are being complemented, extended, and sometimes even completely replaced by faster, simpler, and often more accurate approaches. The new approaches, that we collectively label by machine learning, have their origins in the fields of informatics and artificial intelligence, but are making rapid inroads in all other branches of science. With this in mind, this Roadmap article, consisting of multiple contributions from experts across the field, discusses the use of machine learning in materials science, and share perspectives on current and future challenges in problems as diverse as the prediction of materials properties, the construction of force-fields, the development of exchange correlation functionals for density-functional theory, the solution of the many-body problem, and more. In spite of the already numerous and exciting success stories, we are just at the beginning of a long path that will reshape materials science for the many challenges of the XXIth century.