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  1. Abstract

    Some biological invasions can result in algae blooms in the nearshore of clear lakes. We studied if an invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) modified the biomass and community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates and therefore led to a trophic cascade resulting in increased periphyton biomass, elevated littoral primary productivity, and benthic algae bloom in a lake with remarkable transparency [Crater Lake, Oregon, USA]. After quantifying the changes in the spatial distribution of invasive crayfish over a 13-year period, we compared biomass and community composition of littoral–benthic macroinvertebrates, periphyton biovolume, community composition, nutrient limitation, and the development of benthic algae bloom in locations with high and low crayfish density. In addition, we determined if the alteration in community structure resulted in directional changes to gross primary production and ecosystem respiration. The extent of crayfish distribution along the shoreline of Crater Lake doubled over a 13-year period, leaving less than 20% of the shoreline free from crayfish. At high crayfish density sites, benthic macroinvertebrate biomass was 99% lower, and taxa richness was 50% lower than at low crayfish areas. High crayfish sites show tenfold greater periphyton biovolume, sixfold higher periphyton biomass (chlorophylla), twofold higher metabolic productivity, and the presence of large filamentous algae (Cladophorasp.). The invasion of crayfish had negative consequences for a lake protected under the management of the USA National Park Service, with direct impacts on many levels of ecological organization.

     
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  2. Abstract

    River metabolism and, thus, carbon cycling are governed by gross primary production and ecosystem respiration. Traditionally river metabolism is derived from diel dissolved oxygen concentrations, which cannot resolve diel changes in ecosystem respiration. Here, we compare river metabolism derived from oxygen concentrations with estimates from stable oxygen isotope signatures (δ18O2) from 14 sites in rivers across three biomes using Bayesian inverse modeling. We find isotopically derived ecosystem respiration was greater in the day than night for all rivers (maximum change of 113 g O2 m−2 d−1, minimum of 1 g O2 m−2 d−1). Temperature (20 °C) normalized rates of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production were 1.1 to 87 and 1.5 to 22-fold higher when derived from oxygen isotope data compared to concentration data. Through accounting for diel variation in ecosystem respiration, our isotopically-derived rates suggest that ecosystem respiration and microbial carbon cycling in rivers is more rapid than predicted by traditional methods.

     
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  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 13, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Wildfire smoke often covers areas larger than the burned area, yet the impacts of smoke on nearby aquatic ecosystems are understudied. In the summer of 2018, wildfire smoke covered Castle Lake (California, USA) for 55 days. We quantified the influence of smoke on the lake by comparing the physics, chemistry, productivity, and animal ecology in the prior four years (2014–2017) to the smoke year (2018). Smoke reduced incident ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation by 31% and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) by 11%. Similarly, underwater UV-B and PAR decreased by 65 and 44%, respectively, and lake heat content decreased by 7%. While the nutrient limitation of primary production did not change, shallow production in the offshore habitat increased by 109%, likely due to a release from photoinhibition. In contrast, deep-water, primary production decreased and the deep-water peak in chlorophylladid not develop, likely due to reduced PAR. Despite the structural changes in primary production, light, and temperature, we observed little significant change in zooplankton biomass, community composition, or migration pattern. Trout were absent from the littoral-benthic habitat during the smoke period. The duration and intensity of smoke influences light regimes, heat content, and productivity, with differing responses to consumers.

     
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