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  1. Using low-temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, we study the properties of N- and Al-polar AlN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on bulk AlN{0001}. Compared with the bulk AlN substrate, layers of both polarities feature a suppression of deep-level luminescence, a total absence of the prevalent donor with an exciton binding energy of 28 meV, and a much increased intensity of the emission from free excitons. The dominant donor in these layers is characterized by an associated exciton binding energy of 13 meV. The observation of excited exciton states up to the exciton continuum allows us to directly extract the Γ5 free exciton binding energy of 57 meV. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Permeability of binary mixtures of soils is important for several industrial and engineering applications. Previous models for predicting the permeability of a binary mixture of soils were primarily developed from Kozeny–Carman equation with an empirical approach. The permeability is predicted based on an equivalent particle size of the two species. This study is aimed to develop a model using a more fundamental approach. Instead of an equivalent particle size, the permeability is predicted based on the bimodal void sizes of the binary mixture. Because the bimodal void sizes are not available as commonly measured physical properties. We first develop an analytical method that has the capability of predicting the bimodal void sizes of a binary mixture. A permeability model is then developed based on the bimodal void sizes of the binary mixture. The developed permeability model is evaluated by comparing the predicted and experimentally measured results for binary mixtures of glass beads, crush sand, and gravel sand. The findings can contribute to a better understanding of the important influence of pore structure on the prediction of permeability. 
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  3. Graphene layers placed on SrTiO3 single-crystal substrates, i.e., templates for remote epitaxy of functional oxide membranes, were investigated using temperature-dependent confocal Raman spectroscopy. This approach successfully resolved distinct Raman modes of graphene that are often untraceable in conventional measurements with non-confocal optics due to the strong Raman scattering background of SrTiO3. Information on defects and strain states was obtained for a few graphene/SrTiO3 samples that were synthesized by different techniques. This confocal Raman spectroscopic approach can shed light on the investigation of not only this graphene/SrTiO3 system but also various two-dimensional layered materials whose Raman modes interfere with their substrates.

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  4. Abstract

    Jamming is the transition from a fluid‐like state to a solid‐like state of a packing system. Recent studies have shown that jamming transition depends upon many factors: particle shape, friction/cohesion between particles, particle size dispersity, the stress of the packing, etc. This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring the jamming density of soil with strong dispersity. In analogous to Gibbs excess energy, we introduce excess volume‐potentials for each species. We then proposed a mathematical model to quantitatively compute the jamming density based on the second law of equilibrium in thermodynamics. This approach is validated using experimental results on glass beads and on silty sand. It is hoped that this study will provide to a deeper understanding of the link between jamming density, packing dispersity and the second law of thermodynamics.

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  5. null (Ed.)
    Binary granular soil mixtures, as common heterogeneous soils, are ubiquitous in nature and man-made deposits. Fines content and particle size ratio are two important gradation parameters for a binary mixture, which have potential influences on mechanical behaviours. However, experimental studies on drained shear behaviour considering the whole range of fines content and different particle size ratios are scarce in the literature. For this purpose, we performed a series of drained triaxial compression tests on dense binary silica sand mixtures with 4 different particle size ratios to systematically investigate the effects of fines content and particle size ratio on the drained shear behaviours. Based on these tests, the strength-dilation behaviour and critical state behaviour were examined. It was observed that both fines content and particle size ratio have significant influence on the stress-strain response, the critical state void ratio, the critical state friction angle, the maximum dilation angle, the peak friction angle, and the strength–dilatancy relation. The underlying mechanism for the effects of fines content and particle size ratio was discussed from the perspective of the kinematic movements at particle level. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Machine learning and artificial intelligence (ML/AI) methods have been used successfully in recent years to solve problems in many areas, including image recognition, unsupervised and supervised classification, game-playing, system identification and prediction, and autonomous vehicle control. Data-driven machine learning methods have also been applied to fusion energy research for over 2 decades, including significant advances in the areas of disruption prediction, surrogate model generation, and experimental planning. The advent of powerful and dedicated computers specialized for large-scale parallel computation, as well as advances in statistical inference algorithms, have greatly enhanced the capabilities of these computational approaches to extract scientific knowledge and bridge gaps between theoretical models and practical implementations. Large-scale commercial success of various ML/AI applications in recent years, including robotics, industrial processes, online image recognition, financial system prediction, and autonomous vehicles, have further demonstrated the potential for data-driven methods to produce dramatic transformations in many fields. These advances, along with the urgency of need to bridge key gaps in knowledge for design and operation of reactors such as ITER, have driven planned expansion of efforts in ML/AI within the US government and around the world. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science programs in Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) and Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) have organized several activities to identify best strategies and approaches for applying ML/AI methods to fusion energy research. This paper describes the results of a joint FES/ASCR DOE-sponsored Research Needs Workshop on Advancing Fusion with Machine Learning, held April 30–May 2, 2019, in Gaithersburg, MD (full report available at ). The workshop drew on broad representation from both FES and ASCR scientific communities, and identified seven Priority Research Opportunities (PRO’s) with high potential for advancing fusion energy. In addition to the PRO topics themselves, the workshop identified research guidelines to maximize the effectiveness of ML/AI methods in fusion energy science, which include focusing on uncertainty quantification, methods for quantifying regions of validity of models and algorithms, and applying highly integrated teams of ML/AI mathematicians, computer scientists, and fusion energy scientists with domain expertise in the relevant areas. 
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