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Amongst efforts to realize computer science (CS) for all, recent critiques of racially biased technologies have emerged (e.g., facial recognition software), revealing a need to critically examine the interaction between computing solutions and societal factors. Yet within efforts to introduce K-12 students to such topics, studies examining teachers' learning of critical computing are rare. To understand how teachers learn to integrate societal issues within computing education, we analyzed video of a teacher professional development (PD) session with experienced computing teachers. Highlighting three particular episodes of conversation during PD, our analysis revealed how personal and classroom experiences—from making a sensor-based project to drawing on family and teaching experiences—tethered teachers’ weaving of societal and technical aspects of CS and enabled reflections on their learning and pedagogy. We discuss the need for future PD efforts to build on teachers’ experiences, draw in diverse teacher voices, and develop politicized trust among teachers.more » « less
null (Ed.)Neurophysiological recordings in behaving rodents demonstrate neuronal response properties that may code space and time for episodic memory and goal-directed behaviour. Here, we review recordings from hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and retrosplenial cortex to address the problem of how neurons encode multiple overlapping spatiotemporal trajectories and disambiguate these for accurate memory-guided behaviour. The solution could involve neurons in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus that show mixed selectivity, coding both time and location. Some grid cells and place cells that code space also respond selectively as time cells, allowing differentiation of time intervals when a rat runs in the same location during a delay period. Cells in these regions also develop new representations that differentially code the context of prior or future behaviour allowing disambiguation of overlapping trajectories. Spiking activity is also modulated by running speed and head direction, supporting the coding of episodic memory not as a series of snapshots but as a trajectory that can also be distinguished on the basis of speed and direction. Recent data also address the mechanisms by which sensory input could distinguish different spatial locations. Changes in firing rate reflect running speed on long but not short time intervals, and few cells code movement direction, arguing against path integration for coding location. Instead, new evidence for neural coding of environmental boundaries in egocentric coordinates fits with a modelling framework in which egocentric coding of barriers combined with head direction generates distinct allocentric coding of location. The egocentric input can be used both for coding the location of spatiotemporal trajectories and for retrieving specific viewpoints of the environment. Overall, these different patterns of neural activity can be used for encoding and disambiguation of prior episodic spatiotemporal trajectories or for planning of future goal-directed spatiotemporal trajectories.more » « less