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  1. Maximal Independent Set (MIS) is one of the fundamental problems in distributed computing. The round (time) complexity of distributed MIS has traditionally focused on the worst-case time for all nodes to finish. The best-known (randomized) MIS algorithms take O(log n) worst-case rounds on general graphs (where n is the number of nodes). Breaking the O(log n) worst-case bound has been a longstanding open problem, while currently the best-known lower bound is [EQUATION] rounds. Motivated by the goal to reduce total energy consumption in energy-constrained networks such as sensor and ad hoc wireless networks, we take an alternative approach to measuring performance. We focus on minimizing the total (or equivalently, the average) time for all nodes to finish. It is not clear whether the currently best-known algorithms yield constant-round (or even o(log n)) node-averaged round complexity for MIS in general graphs. We posit the sleeping model, a generalization of the traditional model, that allows nodes to enter either "sleep" or "waking" states at any round. While waking state corresponds to the default state in the traditional model, in sleeping state a node is "offline", i.e., it does not send or receive messages (and messages sent to it are dropped as well)more »and does not incur any time, communication, or local computation cost. Hence, in this model, only rounds in which a node is awake are counted and we are interested in minimizing the average as well as the worst-case number of rounds a node spends in the awake state, besides the traditional worst-case round complexity (i.e., the rounds for all nodes to finish including both the awake and sleeping rounds). Our main result is that we show that MIS can be solved in (expected) O(1) rounds under node-averaged awake complexity measure in the sleeping model. In particular, we present a randomized distributed algorithm for MIS that has expected O(1)-rounds node-averaged awake complexity and, with high probability1 has O(log n)-rounds worst-case awake complexity and O(log3.41 n)-rounds worst-case complexity. Our work is a step towards understanding the node-averaged complexity of MIS both in the traditional and sleeping models, as well as designing energy-efficient distributed algorithms for energy-constrained networks.« less
  2. We study smoothed analysis of distributed graph algorithms, focusing on the fundamental minimum spanning tree (MST) problem. With the goal of studying the time complexity of distributed MST as a function of the "perturbation" of the input graph, we posit a smoothing model that is parameterized by a smoothing parameter 0 ≤ ϵ(n) ≤ 1 which controls the amount of random edges that can be added to an input graph G per round. Informally, ϵ(n) is the probability (typically a small function of n, e.g., n--¼) that a random edge can be added to a node per round. The added random edges, once they are added, can be used (only) for communication. We show upper and lower bounds on the time complexity of distributed MST in the above smoothing model. We present a distributed algorithm that, with high probability, 1 computes an MST and runs in Õ(min{1/√ϵ(n)2O(√log n), D+ √n}) rounds2 where ϵ is the smoothing parameter, D is the network diameter and n is the network size. To complement our upper bound, we also show a lower bound of Ω(min{1/√ϵ(n), D + √n}). We note that the upper and lower bounds essentially match except for a multiplicative 2O(√log n)more »polylog(n) factor. Our work can be considered as a first step in understanding the smoothed complexity of distributed graph algorithms.« less