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  1. Abstract

    A two-body gas-phase reaction rate coefficient can be given by the usual Arrhenius-type formula which depends on temperature. The UMIST Database for Astrochemistry is a widely used database for reaction rate coefficients. They provide fittings for coefficients valid over a particular range of temperatures. The permissible upper-temperature limits vary over a wide range: from 100 to 41,000 K. A wide range of temperatures occurs in nature; thus, it requires evaluating the rate coefficients at temperatures outside the range of validity. As a result, a simple extrapolation of the rate coefficients can lead to unphysically large values at high temperatures. These result in unrealistic predictions. Here we present a solution to prevent the gas-phase reaction coefficients from diverging at a very high temperature. We implement this into the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY which operates over a wide range of temperatures from CMB to 1010K subject to different astrophysical environments.

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  2. Abstract Here we present our current update of CLOUDY on gas-phase chemical reactions for the formation and destruction of the SiS molecule, its energy levels, and collisional rate coefficients with H 2 , H, and He over a wide range of temperatures. As a result, henceforth the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY predicts SiS line intensities and column densities for various astrophysical environments. 
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  3. Abstract

    Here, we present our current updates to the gas-phase chemical reaction rates and molecular lines in the spectral synthesis codecloudy, and its implications in spectroscopic modeling of various astrophysical environments. We include energy levels, and radiative and collisional rates for HF, CF+, HC3N, ArH+, HCl, HCN, CN, CH, and CH2. Simultaneously, we expand our molecular network involving these molecules. For this purpose, we have added 561 new reactions and have updated the existing 165 molecular reaction rates involving these molecules. As a result,cloudynow predicts all the lines arising from these nine molecules. In addition, we also update H2–H2collisional data up to rotational levelsJ= 31 forv= 0. We demonstrate spectroscopic simulations of these molecules for a few astrophysical environments. Our existing model for globules in the Crab Nebula successfully predicts the observed column density of ArH+. Our model predicts a detectable amount of HeH+, OH+, and CH+for the Crab Nebula. We also model the interstellar medium toward HD185418, W31C, and NGC 253, and our predictions match with most of the observed column densities within the observed error bars. Very often molecular lines trace various physical conditions. Hence, this update will be very supportive for spectroscopic modeling of various astrophysical environments, particularly involving submillimeter and mid-infrared observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the James Webb Space Telescope, respectively.

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    Steadily accreting white dwarfs (WDs) are efficient sources of ionization and thus are able to create extended ionized nebulae in their vicinity. These nebulae represent ideal tools for the detection of accreting WDs, given that in most cases the source itself is faint. In this work, we combine radiation transfer simulations with known H- and He-accreting WD models, providing for the first time the ionization state and the emission-line spectra of the formed nebulae as a function of the WD mass, the accretion rate and the chemical composition of the accreted material. We find that the nebular optical line fluxes and radial extent vary strongly with the WD’s accretion properties, peaking in systems with WD masses of 0.8–1.2 $\rm M_{\odot }$. Projecting our results on so-called BPT diagnostic diagrams, we show that accreting WD nebulae possess characteristics distinct from those of H ii-like regions, while they have line ratios similar to those in galactic low-ionization emission-line regions. Finally, we compare our results with the relevant constraints imposed by the lack of ionized nebulae in the vicinity of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) and Type Ia supernova remnants – sources that are related to steadily accreting WDs. The large discrepancies uncovered by our comparison rule out any steadily accreting WD as a potential progenitor of the studied remnants and additionally require the ambient medium around the SSSs to be less dense than 0.2 $\rm cm^{-3}$. We discuss possible alternatives that could bridge the incompatibility between the theoretical expectations and relevant observations.

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