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  1. The presence of incomplete cuts in a thin planar sheet can dramatically alter its mechanical and geometrical response to loading, as the cuts allow the sheet to deform strongly in the third dimension, most beautifully demonstrated in kirigami art-forms. We use numerical experiments to characterize the geometric mechanics of kirigamized sheets as a function of the number, size and orientation of cuts. We show that the geometry of mechanically loaded sheets can be approximated as a composition of simple developable units: flats, cylinders, cones and compressed Elasticae. This geometric construction yields scaling laws for the mechanical response of the sheet in both the weak and strongly deformed limit. In the ultimately stretched limit, this further leads to a theorem on the nature and form of geodesics in an arbitrary kirigami pattern, consistent with observations and simulations. Finally, we show that by varying the shape and size of the geodesic in a kirigamized sheet, we can control the deployment trajectory of the sheet, and thence its functional properties as an exemplar of a tunable structure that can serve as a robotic gripper, a soft light window or the basis for a physically unclonable device. Overall our study of disordered kirigami sets the stage for controlling the shape and shielding the stresses in thin sheets using cuts. 
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  7. Abstract

    A search for decays to invisible particles of Higgs bosons produced in association with a top-antitop quark pair or a vector boson, which both decay to a fully hadronic final state, has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected at$${\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}}$$s=13TeVby the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1. The 95% confidence level upper limit set on the branching fraction of the 125$$\,\text {Ge}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$GeVHiggs boson to invisible particles,$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv), is 0.54 (0.39 expected), assuming standard model production cross sections. The results of this analysis are combined with previous$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv)searches carried out at$${\sqrt{s}=7}$$s=7, 8, and 13$$\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$TeVin complementary production modes. The combined upper limit at 95% confidence level on$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv)is 0.15 (0.08 expected).

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
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  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024