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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Motivated by properties-controlling potential of the strain, we investigate strain dependence of structure, electronic, and magnetic properties of Sr 2 IrO 4 using complementary theoretical tools: ab-initio calculations, analytical approaches (rigid octahedra picture, Slater-Koster integrals), and extended $$t-{{{\mathcal{J}}}}$$ t − J model. We find that strain affects both Ir-Ir distance and Ir-O-Ir angle, and the rigid octahedra picture is not relevant. Second, we find fundamentally different behavior for compressive and tensile strain. One remarkable feature is the formation of two subsets of bond- and orbital-dependent carriers, a compass-like model, under compression. This originates from the strain-induced renormalization of the Ir-O-Ir superexchange and O on-site energy. We also show that under compressive (tensile) strain, Fermi surface becomes highly dispersive (relatively flat). Already at a tensile strain of 1.5%, we observe spectral weight redistribution, with the low-energy band acquiring almost purely singlet character. These results can be directly compared with future experiments.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. This paper proposes AdaTest, a novel adaptive test pattern generation framework for efficient and reliable Hardware Trojan (HT) detection. HT is a backdoor attack that tampers with the design of victim integrated circuits (ICs). AdaTest improves the existing HT detection techniques in terms of scalability and accuracy of detecting smaller Trojans in the presence of noise and variations. To achieve high trigger coverage, AdaTest leverages Reinforcement Learning (RL) to produce a diverse set of test inputs. Particularly, we progressively generate test vectors with high ‘reward’ values in an iterative manner. In each iteration, the test set is evaluated and adaptively expanded as needed. Furthermore, AdaTest integrates adaptive sampling to prioritize test samples that provide more information for HT detection, thus reducing the number of samples while improving the samples’ quality for faster exploration. We develop AdaTest with a Software/Hardware co-design principle and provide an optimized on-chip architecture solution. AdaTest’s architecture minimizes the hardware overhead in two ways: (i) Deploying circuit emulation on programmable hardware to accelerate reward evaluation of the test input; (ii) Pipelining each computation stage in AdaTest by automatically constructing auxiliary circuit for test input generation, reward evaluation, and adaptive sampling. We evaluate AdaTest’s performance on various HTmore »benchmarks and compare it with two prior works that use logic testing for HT detection. Experimental results show that AdaTest engenders up to two orders of test generation speedup and two orders of test set size reduction compared to the prior works while achieving the same level or higher Trojan detection rate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  6. Information flow tracking was proposed more than 40 years ago to address the limitations of access control mechanisms to guarantee the confidentiality and integrity of information flowing within a system, but has not yet been widely applied in practice for security solutions. Here, we survey and systematize literature on dynamic information flow tracking (DIFT) to discover challenges and opportunities to make it practical and effective for security solutions. We focus on common knowledge in the literature and lingering research gaps from two dimensions— (i) the layer of abstraction where DIFT is implemented (software, software/hardware, or hardware) and (ii) the security goal (confidentiality and/or integrity). We observe that two major limitations hinder the practical application of DIFT for on-the-fly security applications: (i) high implementation overhead and (ii) incomplete information flow tracking (low accuracy). We posit, after review of the literature, that addressing these major impedances via hardware parallelism can potentially unleash DIFT’s great potential for systems security, as it can allow security policies to be implemented in a built-in and standardized fashion. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for the next generation of practical and efficient DIFT systems with an eye towards hardware-supported implementations.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 31, 2024
  7. Ransomware is increasingly prevalent in recent years. To defend against ransomware in computing devices using flash memory as external storage, existing designs extract the entire raw flash memory data to restore the external storage to a good state. However, they cannot allow a fine-grained recovery in terms of user files as raw flash memory data do not have the semantics of "files". In this work, we design FFRecovery, a new ransomware defense strategy that can support fine-grained data recovery after the attacks. Our key idea is, to recover a file corrupted by the ransomware, we can 1) restore its file system metadata via file system forensics, and 2) extract its file data via raw data extraction from the flash translation layer, and 3) assemble the corresponding file system metadata and the file data. A simple prototype of FFRecovery has been developed and some preliminary results are provided.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 7, 2023
  8. Abstract Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are archaeal monolayer membrane lipids that can provide a competitive advantage in extreme environments. Here, we identify a radical SAM protein, tetraether synthase (Tes), that participates in the synthesis of GDGTs. Attempts to generate a tes-deleted mutant in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were unsuccessful, suggesting that the gene is essential in this organism. Heterologous expression of tes homologues leads to production of GDGT and structurally related lipids in the methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis (which otherwise does not synthesize GDGTs and lacks a tes homolog, but produces a putative GDGT precursor, archaeol). Tes homologues are encoded in the genomes of many archaea, as well as in some bacteria, in which they might be involved in the synthesis of bacterial branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
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