skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Chen, Gregory K."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. In-memory-computing (IMC) SRAM architecture has gained significant attention as it achieves high energy efficiency for computing a convolutional neural network (CNN) model [1]. Recent works investigated the use of analog-mixed-signal (AMS) hardware for high area and energy efficiency [2], [3]. However, AMS hardware output is well known to be susceptible to process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations, limiting the computing precision and ultimately the inference accuracy of a CNN. We reconfirmed, through the simulation of a capacitor-based IMC SRAM macro that computes a 256D binary dot product, that the AMS computing hardware has a significant root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 22.5% across the worst-case voltage, temperature (Fig. 16.1.1 top left) and 3-sigma process variations (Fig. 16.1.1 top right). On the other hand, we can implement an IMC SRAM macro using robust digital logic [4], which can virtually eliminate the variability issue (Fig. 16.1.1 top). However, digital circuits require more devices than AMS counterparts (e.g., 28 transistors for a mirror full adder [FA]). As a result, a recent digital IMC SRAM shows a lower area efficiency of 6368F2/b (22nm, 4b/4b weight/activation) [5] than the AMS counterpart (1170F2/b, 65nm, 1b/1b) [3]. In light of this, we aim to adopt approximate arithmetic hardware tomore »improve area and power efficiency and present two digital IMC macros (DIMC) with different levels of approximation (Fig. 16.1.1 bottom left). Also, we propose an approximation-aware training algorithm and a number format to minimize inference accuracy degradation induced by approximate hardware (Fig. 16.1.1 bottom right). We prototyped a 28nm test chip: for a 1b/1b CNN model for CIFAR-10 and across 0.5-to-1.1V supply, the DIMC with double-approximate hardware (DIMC-D) achieves 2569F2/b, 932-2219TOPS/W, 475-20032GOPS, and 86.96% accuracy, while for a 4b/1b CNN model, the DIMC with the single-approximate hardware (DIMC-S) achieves 3814F2/b, 458-990TOPS/W« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 20, 2023