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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Elastic surface waves pumping is realized by a smart pillar-type metasurface. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024
  3. Thallium(I) (Tl(I)) pollution has become a pressing environmental issue due to its harmful effect on human health and aquatic life. Effective technology to remove Tl(I) ions from drinking water can offer immediate societal benefits especially in the developing countries. In this study, a bio-adsorbent system based on nitro-oxidized nanocellulose (NOCNF) extracted from sorghum stalks was shown to be a highly effective Tl(I) removal medium. The nitro-oxidation process (NOP) is an energy-efficient, zero-waste approach that can extract nanocellulose from any lignocellulosic feedstock, where the effluent can be neutralized directly into a fertilizer without the need for post-treatment. The demonstrated NOCNF adsorbent exhibited high Tl(I) removal efficiency (>90% at concentration < 500 ppm) and high maximum removal capacity (Qm = 1898 mg/g using the Langmuir model). The Tl(I) adsorption mechanism by NOCNF was investigated by thorough characterization of NOCNF-Tl floc samples using spectroscopic (FTIR), diffraction (WAXD), microscopic (SEM, TEM, and AFM) and zeta-potential techniques. The results indicate that adsorption occurs mainly due to electrostatic attraction between cationic Tl(I) ions and anionic carboxylate groups on NOCNF, where the adsorbed Tl(I) sites become nuclei for the growth of thallium oxide nanocrystals at high Tl(I) concentrations. The mineralization process enhances the Tl(I) removal efficiency, and the mechanism is consistent with the isotherm data analysis using the Freundlich model. 
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  4. ABSTRACT

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-time-scale radio transients, the origins of which are predominantly extragalactic and likely involve highly magnetized compact objects. FRBs undergo multipath propagation, or scattering, from electron density fluctuations on sub-parsec scales in ionized gas along the line of sight. Scattering observations have located plasma structures within FRB host galaxies, probed Galactic and extragalactic turbulence, and constrained FRB redshifts. Scattering also inhibits FRB detection and biases the observed FRB population. We report the detection of scattering times from the repeating FRB 20190520B that vary by up to a factor of 2 or more on minutes to days-long time-scales. In one notable case, the scattering time varied from 7.9 ± 0.4 ms to less than 3.1 ms ($95{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ confidence) over 2.9 min at 1.45 GHz. The scattering times appear to be uncorrelated between bursts or with dispersion and rotation measure variations. Scattering variations are attributable to dynamic, inhomogeneous plasma in the circumsource medium, and analogous variations have been observed from the Crab pulsar. Under such circumstances, the frequency dependence of scattering can deviate from the typical power law used to measure scattering. Similar variations may therefore be detectable from other FRBs, even those with inconspicuous scattering, providing a unique probe of small-scale processes within FRB environments.

     
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