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  1. Mobile augmented reality (AR) has the potential to enable immersive, natural interactions between humans and cyber-physical systems. In particular markerless AR, by not relying on fiducial markers or predefined images, provides great convenience and flexibility for users. However, unwanted virtual object movement frequently occurs in markerless smartphone AR due to inaccurate scene understanding, and resulting errors in device pose tracking. We examine the factors which may affect virtual object stability, design experiments to measure it, and conduct systematic quantitative characterizations across six different user actions and five different smartphone configurations. Our study demonstrates noticeable instances of spatial instability in virtualmore »objects in all but the simplest settings (with position errors of greater than 10cm even on the best-performing smartphones), and underscores the need for further enhancements to pose tracking algorithms for smartphone-based markerless AR.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 2, 2023
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  3. Occipital cortices of different sighted people contain analogous maps of visual information (e.g. foveal vs. peripheral). In congenital blindness, “visual” cortices respond to nonvisual stimuli. Do visual cortices of different blind people represent common informational maps? We leverage naturalistic stimuli and inter-subject pattern similarity analysis to address this question. Blindfolded sighted (n = 22) and congenitally blind (n = 22) participants listened to 6 sound clips (5–7 min each): 3 auditory excerpts from movies; a naturalistic spoken narrative; and matched degraded auditory stimuli (Backwards Speech, scrambled sentences), during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. We compared the spatial activity patterns evoked by each unique 10-smore »segment of the different auditory excerpts across blind and sighted people. Segments of meaningful naturalistic stimuli produced distinctive activity patterns in frontotemporal networks that were shared across blind and across sighted individuals. In the blind group only, segment-specific, cross-subject patterns emerged in visual cortex, but only for meaningful naturalistic stimuli and not Backwards Speech. Spatial patterns of activity within visual cortices are sensitive to time-varying information in meaningful naturalistic auditory stimuli in a broadly similar manner across blind individuals.« less
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  8. Abstract We select 48 multiflare gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) (including 137 flares) from the Swift/XRT database and estimate the spectral lag with the discrete correlation function. It is found that 89.8% of the flares have positive lags and only 9.5% of the flares show negative lags when fluctuations are taken into account. The median lag of the multiflares (2.75 s) is much greater than that of GRB pulses (0.18 s), which can be explained by the fact that we confirm that multiflare GRBs and multipulse GRBs have similar positive lag–duration correlations. We investigate the origin of the lags by checking themore »E peak evolution with the two brightest bursts and find the leading models cannot explain all of the multiflare lags and there may be other physical mechanisms. All of the results above reveal that X-ray flares have the same properties as GRB pulses, which further supports the observation that X-ray flares and GRB prompt-emission pulses have the same physical origin.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
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  10. Abstract We have performed sound velocity and unit cell volume measurements of three synthetic, ultrafine micro/nanocrystalline grossular samples up to 50 GPa using Brillouin spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The samples are characterized by average grain sizes of 90 nm, 93 nm and 179 nm (hereinafter referred to as samples Gr90, Gr93, and Gr179, respectively). The experimentally determined sound velocities and elastic properties of Gr179 sample are comparable with previous measurements, but slightly higher than those of Gr90 and Gr93 under ambient conditions. However, the differences diminish with increasing pressure, and the velocity crossover eventually takes place at approximately 20–30 GPa. The X-ray diffractionmore »peaks of the ultrafine micro/nanocrystalline grossular samples significantly broaden between 15–40 GPa, especially for Gr179. The velocity or elasticity crossover observed at pressures over 30 GPa might be explained by different grain size reduction and/or inhomogeneous strain within the individual grains for the three grossular samples, which is supported by both the pressure-induced peak broadening observed in the X-ray diffraction experiments and transmission electron microscopy observations. The elastic behavior of ultrafine micro/nanocrystalline silicates, in this case, grossular, is both grain size and pressure dependent.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022