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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 23, 2025
  2. Predicting chemical reaction yields is pivotal for efficient chemical synthesis, an area that focuses on the creation of novel compounds for diverse uses. Yield prediction demands accurate representations of reactions for forecasting practical transformation rates. Yet, the uncertainty issues broadcasting in real-world situations prohibit current models to excel in this task owing to the high sensitivity of yield activities and the uncertainty in yield measurements. Existing models often utilize single-modal feature representations, such as molecular fingerprints, SMILES sequences, or molecular graphs, which is not sufficient to capture the complex interactions and dynamic behavior of molecules in reactions. In this paper, we present an advanced Uncertainty-Aware Multimodal model (UAM) to tackle these challenges. Our approach seamlessly integrates data sources from multiple modalities by encompassing sequence representations, molecular graphs, and expert-defined chemical reaction features for a comprehensive representation of reactions. Additionally, we address both the model and data-based uncertainty, refining the model’s predictive capability. Extensive experiments on three datasets, including two high throughput experiment (HTE) datasets and one chemist-constructed Amide coupling reaction dataset, demonstrate that UAM outperforms the stateof-the-art methods. The code and used datasets are available at https://github.com/jychen229/Multimodal-reaction-yieldprediction. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 27, 2025
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  7. Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection plays a crucial role in ensuring the safe deployment of deep neural network (DNN) classifiers. While a myriad of methods have focused on improving the performance of OOD detectors, a critical gap remains in interpreting their decisions. We help bridge this gap by providing explanations for OOD detectors based on learned high-level concepts. We first propose two new metrics for assessing the effectiveness of a particular set of concepts for explaining OOD detectors: 1) detection completeness, which quantifies the sufficiency of concepts for explaining an OOD-detector’s decisions, and 2) concept separability, which captures the distributional separation between in-distribution and OOD data in the concept space. Based on these metrics, we propose an unsupervised framework for learning a set of concepts that satisfy the desired properties of high detection completeness and concept separability, and demonstrate its effectiveness in providing concept-based explanations for diverse off-the-shelf OOD detectors. We also show how to identify prominent concepts contributing to the detection results, and provide further reasoning about their decisions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 3, 2024
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