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  1. In this work, a storefront accessibility image dataset is collected from Google street view and is labeled with three main objects for storefront accessibility: doors (for store entrances), doorknobs (for accessing the entrances) and stairs (for leading to the entrances). Then MultiCLU, a new multi-stage context learning and utilization approach, is proposed with the following four stages: Context in Labeling (CIL), Context in Training (CIT), Context in Detection (CID) and Context in Evaluation (CIE). The CIL stage automatically extends the label for each knob to include more local contextual information. In the CIT stage, a deep learning method is used to project the visual information extracted by a Faster R-CNN based object detector to semantic space generated by a Graph Convolutional Network. The CID stage uses the spatial relation reasoning between categories to refine the confidence score. Finally in the CIE stage, a new loose evaluation metric for storefront accessibility, especially for knob category, is proposed to efficiently help BLV users to find estimated knob locations. Our experiment results show that the proposed MultiCLU framework can achieve significantly better performance than the baseline detector using Faster R-CNN, with +13.4% on mAP and +15.8% on recall, respectively. Our new evaluation metric also introduces a new way to evaluate storefront accessibility objects, which could benefit BLV group in real life. 
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  2. Protein scaffolds direct the organization of amorphous precursors that transform into mineralized tissues, but the templating mechanism remains elusive. Motivated by models for the biomineralization of tooth enamel, wherein amyloid-like amelogenin nanoribbons guide the mineralization of apatite filaments, we investigated the impact of nanoribbon structure, sequence, and chemistry on amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nucleation. Using full-length human amelogenin and peptide analogs with an amyloid-like domain, films of β-sheet nanoribbons were self-assembled on graphite and characterized by in situ atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. All sequences substantially reduce nucleation barriers for ACP by creating low-energy interfaces, while phosphoserines along the length of the nanoribbons dramatically enhance kinetic factors associated with ion binding. Furthermore, the distribution of negatively charged residues along the nanoribbons presents a potential match to the Ca–Ca distances of the multi-ion complexes that constitute ACP. These findings show that amyloid-like amelogenin nanoribbons provide potent scaffolds for ACP mineralization by presenting energetically and stereochemically favorable templates of calcium phosphate ion binding and suggest enhanced surface wetting toward calcium phosphates in general. 
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  3. It is good practice to name test methods such that they are comprehensible to developers; they must be written in such a way that their purpose and functionality are clear to those who will maintain them. Unfortunately, there is little automated support for writing or maintaining the names of test methods. This can lead to inconsistent and low-quality test names and increase the maintenance cost of supporting these methods. Due to this risk, it is essential to help developers in maintaining their test method names over time. In this paper, we use grammar patterns, and how they relate to test method behavior, to understand test naming practices. This data will be used to support an automated tool for maintaining test names. 
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  5. Assembly of two-dimensional (2D) molecular arrays on surfaces produces a wide range of architectural motifs exhibiting unique properties, but little attention has been given to the mechanism by which they nucleate. Using peptides selected for their binding affinity to molybdenum disulfide, we investigated nucleation of 2D arrays by molecularly resolved in situ atomic force microscopy and compared our results to molecular dynamics simulations. The arrays assembled one row at a time, and the nuclei were ordered from the earliest stages and formed without a free energy barrier or a critical size. The results verify long-standing but unproven predictions of classical nucleation theory in one dimension while revealing key interactions underlying 2D assembly.

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