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  1. Abstract

    Numerous structures conducive to magnetic reconnection are frequently observed in the turbulent regions at quasi-parallel shocks. In this work, we use a particle-in-cell simulation to study 3D magnetic reconnection in shock turbulence. We identify and characterize magnetic null points, and focus on reconnection along the separator between them. We identify a reconnection region with strong parallel current, a finite parallel potential, and counterrotating electron flows. Electrons are shown to be accelerated by the parallel electric field before being scattered at the null.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We perform a 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of a quasi-parallel shock, using parameters for the Earth’s bow shock, to examine electron acceleration and heating due to magnetic reconnection. The shock transition region evolves from the ion-coupled reconnection dominant stage to the electron-only reconnection dominant stage, as time elapses. The electron temperature enhances locally in each reconnection site, and ion-scale magnetic islands generated by ion-coupled reconnection show the most significant enhancement of the electron temperature. The electron energy spectrum shows a power law, with a power-law index around 6. We perform electron trajectory tracing to understand how they are energized. Some electrons interact with multiple electron-only reconnection sties, and Fermi acceleration occurs during multiple reflections. Electrons trapped in ion-scale magnetic islands can be accelerated in another mechanism. Islands move in the shock transition region, and electrons can obtain larger energy from the in-plane electric field than the electric potential in those islands. These newly found energization mechanisms in magnetic islands in the shock can accelerate electrons to energies larger than the achievable energies by the conventional energization due to the parallel electric field and shock drift acceleration. This study based on the selected particle analysis indicates that the maximum energy in the nonthermal electrons is achieved through acceleration in ion-scale islands, and electron-only reconnection accounts for no more than half of the maximum energy, as the lifetime of sub-ion-scale islands produced by electron-only reconnection is several times shorter than that of ion-scale islands.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Although many substorm‐related observations have been made, we still have limited insight into propagation of the plasma and field perturbations in Pi2 frequencies (∼7–25 mHz) in association with substorm aurora, particularly from the auroral source region in the inner magnetosphere to the ground. In this study, we present conjugate observations of a substorm brightening aurora using an all‐sky camera and an inner‐magnetospheric satellite Arase atL ∼ 5. A camera at Gakona (62.39°N, 214.78°E), Alaska, observed a substorm auroral brightening on 28 December 2018, and the footprint of the satellite was located just equatorward of the aurora. Around the timing of the auroral brightening, the satellite observed a series of quasi‐periodic variations in the electric and magnetic fields and in the energy flux of electrons and ions. We demonstrate that the diamagnetic variations of thermal pressure and medium‐energy ion energy flux in the inner magnetosphere show approximately one‐to‐one correspondence with the oscillations in luminosity of the substorm brightening aurora and high‐latitudinal Pi2 pulsations on the ground. We also found their anti‐correlation with low‐energy electrons. Cavity‐type Pi2 pulsations were observed at mid‐ and low‐latitudinal stations. Based on these observations, we suggest that a wave phenomenon in the substorm auroral source region, like ballooning type instability, play an important role in the development of substorm and related auroral brightening and high‐latitude Pi2, and that the variation of the auroral luminosity was directly driven by keV electrons which were modulated by Alfven waves in the inner magnetosphere.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Relativistic electron precipitation to the Earth's atmosphere is an important loss mechanism of inner magnetosphere electrons, contributing significantly to the dynamics of the radiation belts. Such precipitation may be driven by electron resonant scattering by middle‐latitude whistler‐mode waves at dawn to noon; by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves at dusk; or by curvature scattering at the isotropy boundary (at the inner edge of the electron plasma sheet anywhere on the nightside, from dusk to dawn). Using low‐altitude ELFIN and near‐equatorial THEMIS measurements, we report on a new type of relativistic electron precipitation that shares some properties with the traditional curvature scattering mechanism (occurring on the nightside and often having a clear energy/L‐shell dispersion). However, it is less common than the typical electron isotropy boundary and it is observed most often during substorms. It is seen equatorward of (and well separated from) the electron isotropy boundary and around or poleward of the ion isotropy boundary (the inner edge of the ion plasma sheet). It may be due to one or more of the following mechanisms: EMIC waves in the presence of a specific radial profile of the cold plasma density; a regional suppression of the magnetic field enhancing curvature scattering locally; and/or electron resonant scattering by kinetic Alfvén waves.

     
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  5. Hard x-rays produced by intense laser-produced fast electrons interacting with solids are a vital source for producing radiographs of high-density objects and implosion cores for inertial confinement fusion. Accurate calculation of hard x-ray sources requires a three-dimensional (3D) simulation geometry that fully models the electron transport dynamics, including electron recirculation and the generation of absolute photon yields. To date, 3D simulations of laser-produced bremsstrahlung photons over tens of picoseconds and code benchmarking have not been performed definitively. In this study, we characterize sub-picosecond laser-produced fast electrons by modeling angularly resolved bremsstrahlung measurements for refluxing and non-refluxing targets using the 3D hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC), Large Scale Plasma code. Bremsstrahlung radiation and escaped electron data were obtained by focusing a 50-TW Leopard laser (15 J, 0.35 ps, 2 × 1019 W/cm2) on a 100-μm-thick Cu foil and a Cu with a large plastic backing (Cu–CH target). Data for both the Cu and Cu–CH targets were reproduced for simulations with a given set of electron parameters. Comparison of the simulations revealed that the hard x-ray emission from the Cu target was significantly longer in duration than that from the Cu–CH target. The benchmarked hybrid PIC code could prove to be a powerful tool in the design and optimization of time- and angular-dependent bremsstrahlung sources for flash x-ray and gamma-ray radiography.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We consider a conjecture that identifies two types of base point free divisors on$\overline {\text {M}}_{0,n}$M¯0,n. The first arises from Gromov-Witten theory of a Grassmannian. The second comes from first Chern classes of vector bundles associated with simple Lie algebras in type A. Here we reduce this conjecture on$\overline {\text {M}}_{0,n}$M¯0,nto the same statement forn= 4. A reinterpretation leads to a proof of the conjecture on$\overline {\text {M}}_{0,n}$M¯0,nfor a large class, and we give sufficient conditions for the non-vanishing of these divisors.

     
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  7. Abstract In various so-called strange metals, electrons undergo Planckian dissipation 1,2 , a strong and anomalous scattering that grows linearly with temperature 3 , in contrast to the quadratic temperature dependence expected from the standard theory of metals. In some cuprates 4,5 and pnictides 6 , a linear dependence of resistivity on a magnetic field has also been considered anomalous—possibly an additional facet of Planckian dissipation. Here we show that the resistivity of the cuprate strange metals Nd 0.4 La 1.6− x Sr x CuO 4 (ref. 7 ) and La 2− x Sr x CuO 4 (ref. 8 ) is quantitatively consistent with the standard Boltzmann theory of electron motion in a magnetic field, in all aspects—field strength, field direction, temperature and disorder level. The linear field dependence is found to be simply the consequence of scattering rate anisotropy. We conclude that Planckian dissipation is anomalous in its temperature dependence, but not in its field dependence. The scattering rate in these cuprates does not depend on field, which means that their Planckian dissipation is robust against fields up to at least 85 T. 
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