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    The spectral element method is currently the method of choice for computing accurate synthetic seismic wavefields in realistic 3-D earth models at the global scale. However, it requires significantly more computational time, compared to normal mode-based approximate methods. Source stacking, whereby multiple earthquake sources are aligned on their origin time and simultaneously triggered, can reduce the computational costs by several orders of magnitude. We present the results of synthetic tests performed on a realistic radially anisotropic 3-D model, slightly modified from model SEMUCB-WM1 with three component synthetic waveform ‘data’ for a duration of 10 000 s, and filtered at periods longer than 60 s, for a set of 273 events and 515 stations. We consider two definitions of the misfit function, one based on the stacked records at individual stations and another based on station-pair cross-correlations of the stacked records. The inverse step is performed using a Gauss–Newton approach where the gradient and Hessian are computed using normal mode perturbation theory. We investigate the retrieval of radially anisotropic long wavelength structure in the upper mantle in the depth range 100–800 km, after fixing the crust and uppermost mantle structure constrained by fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The results show good performance using both definitions of the misfit function, even in the presence of realistic noise, with degraded amplitudes of lateral variations in the anisotropic parameter ξ. Interestingly, we show that we can retrieve the long wavelength structure in the upper mantle, when considering one or the other of three portions of the cross-correlation time series, corresponding to where we expect the energy from surface wave overtone, fundamental mode or a mixture of the two to be dominant, respectively. We also considered the issue of missing data, by randomly removing a successively larger proportion of the available synthetic data. We replace the missing data by synthetics computed in the current 3-D model using normal mode perturbation theory. The inversion results degrade with the proportion of missing data, especially for ξ, and we find that a data availability of 45 per cent or more leads to acceptable results. We also present a strategy for grouping events and stations to minimize the number of missing data in each group. This leads to an increased number of computations but can be significantly more efficient than conventional single-event-at-a-time inversion. We apply the grouping strategy to a real picking scenario, and show promising resolution capability despite the use of fewer waveforms and uneven ray path distribution. Source stacking approach can be used to rapidly obtain a starting 3-D model for more conventional full-waveform inversion at higher resolution, and to investigate assumptions made in the inversion, such as trade-offs between isotropic, anisotropic or anelastic structure, different model parametrizations or how crustal structure is accounted for.

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  2. Providing user-understandable explanations to justify recommendations could help users better understand the recommended items, increase the system’s ease of use, and gain users’ trust. A typical approach to realize it is natural language generation. However, previous works mostly adopt recurrent neural networks to meet the ends, leaving the potentially more effective pre-trained Transformer models under-explored. In fact, user and item IDs, as important identifiers in recommender systems, are inherently in different semantic space as words that pre-trained models were already trained on. Thus, how to effectively fuse IDs into such models becomes a critical issue. Inspired by recent advancement in prompt learning, we come up with two solutions: find alternative words to represent IDs (called discrete prompt learning) and directly input ID vectors to a pre-trained model (termed continuous prompt learning). In the latter case, ID vectors are randomly initialized but the model is trained in advance on large corpora, so they are actually in different learning stages. To bridge the gap, we further propose two training strategies: sequential tuning and recommendation as regularization. Extensive experiments show that our continuous prompt learning approach equipped with the training strategies consistently outperforms strong baselines on three datasets of explainable recommendation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  4. Abstract

    Heat conduction in solids is typically governed by the Fourier’s law describing a diffusion process due to the short wavelength and mean free path for phonons and electrons. Surface phonon polaritons couple thermal photons and optical phonons at the surface of polar dielectrics, possessing much longer wavelength and propagation length, representing an excellent candidate to support extraordinary heat transfer. Here, we realize clear observation of thermal conductivity mediated by surface phonon polaritons in SiO2nanoribbon waveguides of 20-50 nm thick and 1-10 μm wide and also show non-Fourier behavior in over 50-100 μm distance at room and high temperature. This is enabled by rational design of the waveguide to control the mode size of the surface phonon polaritons and its efficient coupling to thermal reservoirs. Our work laid the foundation for manipulating heat conduction beyond the traditional limit via surface phonon polaritons waves in solids.

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  5. This article proposes a novel causal discovery and inference method called GrIVET for a Gaussian directed acyclic graph with unmeasured confounders. GrIVET consists of an order-based causal discovery method and a likelihood-based inferential procedure. For causal discovery, we generalize the existing peeling algorithm to estimate the ancestral relations and candidate instruments in the presence of hidden confounders. Based on this, we propose a new procedure for instrumental variable estimation of each direct effect by separating it from any mediation effects. For inference, we develop a new likelihood ratio test of multiple causal effects that is able to account for the unmeasured confounders. Theoretically, we prove that the proposed method has desirable guarantees, including robustness to invalid instruments and uncertain interventions, estimation consistency, low-order polynomial time complexity, and validity of asymptotic inference. Numerically, GrIVET performs well and compares favorably against state-of-the-art competitors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of the proposed method through an application inferring regulatory pathways from Alzheimer’s disease gene expression data. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 4, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 6, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024