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  1. Butterflies are not only ubiquitous around the world but are also widely known for inspiring thrill resonance, with their elegant and peculiar flights. However, realistically modeling and simulating butterfly flights—in particular, for real-time graphics and animation applications—remains an under-explored problem. In this article, we propose an efficient and practical model to simulate butterfly flights. We first model a butterfly with parametric maneuvering functions, including wing-abdomen interaction. Then, we simulate dynamic maneuvering control of the butterfly through our force-based model, which includes both the aerodynamics force and the vortex force. Through many simulation experiments and comparisons, we demonstrate that our method can efficiently simulate realistic butterfly flight motions in various real-world settings.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 30, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 20, 2023
  3. We propose a novel end-to-end framework for whole-brain and whole-genome imaging-genetics. Our genetics network uses hierarchical graph convolution and pooling operations to embed subject-level data onto a low-dimensional latent space. The hierarchical network implicitly tracks the convergence of genetic risk across well-established biological pathways, while an attention mechanism automatically identifies the salient edges of this network at the subject level. In parallel, our imaging network projects multimodal data onto a set of latent embeddings. For interpretability, we implement a Bayesian feature selection strategy to extract the discriminative imaging biomarkers; these feature weights are optimized alongside the other model parameters. We couple the imaging and genetic embeddings with a predictor network, to ensure that the learned representations are linked to phenotype. We evaluate our framework on a schizophrenia dataset that includes two functional MRI paradigms and gene scores derived from Single Nucleotide Polymorphism data. Using repeated 10-fold cross-validation, we show that our imaging-genetics fusion achieves the better classification performance than state-of-the-art baselines. In an exploratory analysis, we further show that the biomarkers identified by our model are reproducible and closely associated with deficits in schizophrenia.
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  5. Abstract

    Despite its electron deficiency, boron can form multiple bonds with a variety of elements. However, multiple bonds between boron and main-group metal elements are relatively rare. Here we report the observation of boron-lead multiple bonds in PbB2Oand PbB3O2, which are produced and characterized in a cluster beam. PbB2Ois found to have an open-shell linear structure, in which the bond order of B☱Pb is 2.5, while the closed-shell [Pb≡B–B≡O]2–contains a B≡Pb triple bond. PbB3O2is shown to have a Y-shaped structure with a terminal B = Pb double bond coordinated by two boronyl ligands. Comparison between [Pb≡B–B≡O]2–/[Pb=B(B≡O)2]and the isoelectronic [Pb≡B–C≡O]/[Pb=B(C≡O)2]+carbonyl counterparts further reveals transition-metal-like behaviors for the central B atoms. Additional theoretical studies show that Ge and Sn can form similar boron species as Pb, suggesting the possibilities to synthesize new compounds containing multiple boron bonds with heavy group-14 elements.

  6. Boron displays many unusual structural and bonding properties due to its electron deficiency. Here we show that a boron atom in a boron monoxide cluster (B 9 O − ) exhibits transition-metal-like properties. Temperature-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy provided evidence of the existence of two isomers for B 9 O − : the main isomer has an adiabatic detachment energy (ADE) of 4.19 eV and a higher energy isomer with an ADE of 3.59 eV. The global minimum of B 9 O − is found surprisingly to be an umbrella-like structure ( C 6v , 1 A 1 ) and its simulated spectrum agrees well with that of the main isomer observed. A low-lying isomer ( C s , 1 A′) consisting of a BO unit bonded to a disk-like B 8 cluster agrees well with the 3.59 eV ADE species. The unexpected umbrella-like global minimum of B 9 O − can be viewed as a central boron atom coordinated by a η 7 -B 7 ligand on one side and a BO ligand on the other side, [(η 7 -B 7 )-B-BO] − . The central B atom is found to share its valence electrons with the B 7 unit tomore »fulfill double aromaticity, similar to that in half-sandwich [(η 7 -B 7 )-Zn-CO] − or [(η 7 -B 7 )-Fe(CO) 3 ] − transition-metal complexes. The ability of boron to form a half-sandwich complex with an aromatic ligand, a prototypical property of transition metals, brings out new metallomimetic properties of boron.« less