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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 22, 2024
  2. Chen, Wei R. (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 14, 2024
  3. Chen, Wei R. (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 14, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  5. Abstract Data-driven design shows the promise of accelerating materials discovery but is challenging due to the prohibitive cost of searching the vast design space of chemistry, structure, and synthesis methods. Bayesian optimization (BO) employs uncertainty-aware machine learning models to select promising designs to evaluate, hence reducing the cost. However, BO with mixed numerical and categorical variables, which is of particular interest in materials design, has not been well studied. In this work, we survey frequentist and Bayesian approaches to uncertainty quantification of machine learning with mixed variables. We then conduct a systematic comparative study of their performances in BO using a popular representative model from each group, the random forest-based Lolo model (frequentist) and the latent variable Gaussian process model (Bayesian). We examine the efficacy of the two models in the optimization of mathematical functions, as well as properties of structural and functional materials, where we observe performance differences as related to problem dimensionality and complexity. By investigating the machine learning models’ predictive and uncertainty estimation capabilities, we provide interpretations of the observed performance differences. Our results provide practical guidance on choosing between frequentist and Bayesian uncertainty-aware machine learning models for mixed-variable BO in materials design.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  7. Abstract Customer preference modelling has been widely used to aid engineering design decisions on the selection and configuration of design attributes. Recently, network analysis approaches, such as the exponential random graph model (ERGM), have been increasingly used in this field. While the ERGM-based approach has the new capability of modelling the effects of interactions and interdependencies (e.g., social relationships among customers) on customers’ decisions via network structures (e.g., using triangles to model peer influence), existing research can only model customers’ consideration decisions, and it cannot predict individual customer’s choices, as what the traditional utility-based discrete choice models (DCMs) do. However, the ability to make choice predictions is essential to predicting market demand, which forms the basis of decision-based design (DBD). This paper fills this gap by developing a novel ERGM-based approach for choice prediction. This is the first time that a network-based model can explicitly compute the probability of an alternative being chosen from a choice set. Using a large-scale customer-revealed choice database, this research studies the customer preferences estimated from the ERGM-based choice models with and without network structures and evaluates their predictive performance of market demand, benchmarking the multinomial logit (MNL) model, a traditional DCM. The results showmore »that the proposed ERGM-based choice modelling achieves higher accuracy in predicting both individual choice behaviours and market share ranking than the MNL model, which is mathematically equivalent to ERGM when no network structures are included. The insights obtained from this study further extend the DBD framework by allowing explicit modelling of interactions among entities (i.e., customers and products) using network representations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  9. Abstract Motivated by properties-controlling potential of the strain, we investigate strain dependence of structure, electronic, and magnetic properties of Sr 2 IrO 4 using complementary theoretical tools: ab-initio calculations, analytical approaches (rigid octahedra picture, Slater-Koster integrals), and extended $$t-{{{\mathcal{J}}}}$$ t − J model. We find that strain affects both Ir-Ir distance and Ir-O-Ir angle, and the rigid octahedra picture is not relevant. Second, we find fundamentally different behavior for compressive and tensile strain. One remarkable feature is the formation of two subsets of bond- and orbital-dependent carriers, a compass-like model, under compression. This originates from the strain-induced renormalization of the Ir-O-Ir superexchange and O on-site energy. We also show that under compressive (tensile) strain, Fermi surface becomes highly dispersive (relatively flat). Already at a tensile strain of 1.5%, we observe spectral weight redistribution, with the low-energy band acquiring almost purely singlet character. These results can be directly compared with future experiments.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  10. We exploit memory effect correlations in speckles for the imaging of incoherent fluorescent sources behind scattering tissue. These correlations are often weak when imaging thick scattering tissues and complex illumination patterns, both of which greatly limit the practicality of associated techniques. In this work, we introduce a spatial light modulator between the tissue sample and the imaging sensor and capture multiple modulations of the speckle pattern. We show that by correctly designing the modulation patterns and the associated reconstruction algorithm, statistical correlations in the measurements can be greatly enhanced. We exploit this to demonstrate the reconstruction of mega-pixel sized fluorescent patterns behind the scattering tissue.