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  1. Abstract We seek signatures of the current experimental 12 C α , γ 16 O reaction rate probability distribution function in the pulsation periods of carbon–oxygen white dwarf (WD) models. We find that adiabatic g-modes trapped by the interior carbon-rich layer offer potentially useful signatures of this reaction rate probability distribution function. Probing the carbon-rich region is relevant because it forms during the evolution of low-mass stars under radiative helium-burning conditions, mitigating the impact of convective mixing processes. We make direct quantitative connections between the pulsation periods of the identified trapped g-modes in variable WD models and the current experimental 12 C α , γ 16 O reaction rate probability distribution function. We find an average spread in relative period shifts of Δ P / P ≃ ±2% for the identified trapped g-modes over the ±3 σ uncertainty in the 12 C α , γ 16 O reaction rate probability distribution function—across the effective temperature range of observed DAV and DBV WDs and for different WD masses, helium shell masses, and hydrogen shell masses. The g-mode pulsation periods of observed WDs are typically given to six to seven significant figures of precision. This suggests that an astrophysical constraint on themore »12 C α , γ 16 O reaction rate could, in principle, be extractable from the period spectrum of observed variable WDs.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Gravitational-wave (GW) detections of binary black hole (BH) mergers have begun to sample the cosmic BH mass distribution. The evolution of single stellar cores predicts a gap in the BH mass distribution due to pair-instability supernovae (PISNe). Determining the upper and lower edges of the BH mass gap can be useful for interpreting GW detections of merging BHs. We useMESAto evolve single, nonrotating, massive helium cores with a metallicity ofZ= 10−5, until they either collapse to form a BH or explode as a PISN, without leaving a compact remnant. We calculate the boundaries of the lower BH mass gap for S-factors in the range S(300 keV) = (77,203) keV b, corresponding to the ±3σuncertainty in our high-resolution tabulated12C(α,γ)16O reaction rate probability distribution function. We extensively test temporal and spatial resolutions for resolving the theoretical peak of the BH mass spectrum across the BH mass gap. We explore the convergence with respect to convective mixing and nuclear burning, finding that significant time resolution is needed to achieve convergence. We also test adopting a minimum diffusion coefficient to help lower-resolution models reach convergence. We establish a new lower edge of the upper mass gap asMlower6014+32Mfrom the ±3σuncertainty inmore »the12C(α,γ)16O rate. We explore the effect of a larger 3αrate on the lower edge of the upper mass gap, findingMlower6918+34M. We compare our results with BHs reported in the Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog.

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  3. Abstract

    We explore changes in the adiabatic low-order g-mode pulsation periods of 0.526, 0.560, and 0.729Mcarbon–oxygen white dwarf models with helium-dominated envelopes due to the presence, absence, and enhancement of22Ne in the interior. The observed g-mode pulsation periods of such white dwarfs are typically given to 6−7 significant figures of precision. Usually white dwarf models without22Ne are fit to the observed periods and other properties. The rms residuals to the ≃150−400 s low-order g-mode periods are typically in the range ofσrms≲ 0.3 s, for a fit precision ofσrms/P≲ 0.3%. We find average relative period shifts of ΔP/P≃ ±0.5% for the low-order dipole and quadrupole g-mode pulsations within the observed effective temperature window, with the range of ΔP/Pdepending on the specific g-mode, abundance of22Ne, effective temperature, and the mass of the white dwarf model. This finding suggests a systematic offset may be present in the fitting process of specific white dwarfs when22Ne is absent. As part of the fitting processes involves adjusting the composition profiles of a white dwarf model, our study on the impact of22Ne can provide new inferences on the derived interior mass fraction profiles. We encourage routinely including22Ne mass fraction profiles, informed by stellar evolution models, to futuremore »generations of white dwarf model-fitting processes.

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