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  1. Abstract

    A supersonic relative velocity between dark matter (DM) and baryons (the stream velocity) at the time of recombination induces the formation of low-mass objects with anomalous properties in the early universe. We widen the scope of the “Supersonic Project” paper series to include objects we term Dark Matter + Gas Halos Offset by Streaming (DM GHOSts)—diffuse, DM-enriched structures formed because of a physical offset between the centers of mass of DM and baryonic overdensities. We present an updated numerical investigation of DM GHOSts and Supersonically Induced Gas Objects (SIGOs), including the effects of molecular cooling, in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations using theAREPOcode. Supplemented by an analytical understanding of their ellipsoidal gravitational potentials, we study the population-level properties of these objects, characterizing their morphology, spin, radial mass, and velocity distributions in comparison to classical structures in non-streaming regions. The stream velocity causes deviations from sphericity in both the gas and DM components and lends greater rotational support to the gas. Low-mass (≲105.5M) objects in regions of streaming demonstrate core-like rotation and mass profiles. Anomalies in the rotation and morphology of DM GHOSts could represent an early universe analog to observed ultra-faint dwarf galaxies with variations in DM content and unusual rotationmore »curves.

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  2. Abstract

    Supersonically induced gas objects (SIGOs) are a class of early universe objects that have gained attention as a potential formation route for globular clusters. SIGOs have recently begun to be studied in the context of molecular hydrogen cooling, which is key to characterizing their structure and evolution. Studying the population-level properties of SIGOs with molecular cooling is important for understanding their potential for collapse and star formation, and for addressing whether SIGOs can survive to the present epoch. Here, we investigate the evolution of SIGOs before they form stars, using a combination of numerical and analytical analysis. We study timescales important to the evolution of SIGOs at a population level in the presence of molecular cooling. Revising the previous formulation for the critical density of collapse for SIGOs allows us to show that their prolateness tends to act as an inhibiting factor to collapse. We find that simulated SIGOs are limited by artificial two-body relaxation effects that tend to disperse them. We expect that SIGOs in nature will be longer lived compared to our simulations. Further, the fall-back timescale on which SIGOs fall into nearby dark matter halos, potentially producing a globular-cluster-like system, is frequently longer than their coolingmore »timescale and the collapse timescale on which they shrink through gravity. Therefore, some SIGOs have time to cool and collapse outside of halos despite initially failing to exceed the critical density. From this analysis we conclude that SIGOs should form stars outside of halos in nonnegligible stream velocity patches in the universe.

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  3. Abstract Supersonically induced gas objects (SIGOs), are structures with little to no dark-matter component predicted to exist in regions of the universe with large relative velocities between baryons and dark matter at the time of recombination. They have been suggested to be the progenitors of present-day globular clusters. Using simulations, SIGOs have been studied on small scales (around 2 Mpc) where these relative velocities are coherent. However, it is challenging to study SIGOs using simulations on large scales due to the varying relative velocities at scales larger than a few Mpc. Here, we study SIGO abundances semi-analytically: using perturbation theory, we predict the number density of SIGOs analytically, and compare these results to small-box numerical simulations. We use the agreement between the numerical and analytic calculations to extrapolate the large-scale variation of SIGO abundances over different stream velocities. As a result, we predict similar large-scale variations of objects with high gas densities before reionization that could possibly be observed by JWST. If indeed SIGOs are progenitors of globular clusters, then we expect a similar variation of globular cluster abundances over large scales. Significantly, we find that the expected number density of SIGOs is consistent with observed globular cluster number densities.more »As a proof-of-concept, and because globular clusters were proposed to be natural formation sites for gravitational wave sources from binary black-hole mergers, we show that SIGOs should imprint an anisotropy on the gravitational wave signal on the sky, consistent with their distribution.« less