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Creators/Authors contains: "Chiu, Nan-Chieh"

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  1. Abstract

    Here, four MOFs, namely Sc-TBAPy, Al-TBAPy, Y-TBAPy, and Fe-TBAPy (TBAPy: 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(p-benzoic acid)pyrene), were characterized and evaluated for their ability to remediate glyphosate (GP) from water. Among these materials, Sc-TBAPy demonstrates superior performance in both the adsorption and degradation of GP. Upon light irradiation for 5 min, Sc-TBAPy completely degrades 100% of GP in a 1.5 mM aqueous solution. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that Sc-TBAPy exhibits enhanced charge transfer character compared to the other MOFs, as well as suppressed formation of emissive excimers that could impede photocatalysis. This finding was further supported by hydrogen evolution half-reaction (HER) experiments, which demonstrated Sc-TBAPy’s superior catalytic activity for water splitting. In addition to its faster adsorption and more efficient photodegradation of GP, Sc-TBAPy also followed a selective pathway towards the oxidation of GP, avoiding the formation of toxic aminomethylphosphonic acid observed with the other M3+-TBAPy MOFs. To investigate the selectivity observed with Sc-TBAPy, electron spin resonance, depleted oxygen conditions, and solvent exchange with D2O were employed to elucidate the role of different reactive oxygen species on GP photodegradation. The findings indicate that singlet oxygen (1O2) plays a critical role in the selective photodegradation pathway achieved by Sc-TBAPy.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    It remains a challenge to design aqueous electrolytes to secure the complete reversibility of zinc metal anodes. The concentrated water‐in‐salt electrolytes, e.g., 30 m ZnCl2, are promising candidates to address the challenges of the Zn metal anode. However, the pure 30 m ZnCl2electrolyte fails to deliver a smooth surface morphology and a practically relevant Coulombic efficiency. Herein, it is reported that a small concentration of vanillin, 5 mg mLwater−1, added to 30 m ZnCl2transforms the reversibility of Zn metal anode by eliminating dendrites, lowering the Hammett acidity, and forming an effective solid electrolyte interphase. The presence of vanillin in the electrolyte enables the Zn metal anode to exhibit a high Coulombic efficiency of 99.34% at a low current density of 0.2 mA cm−2, at which the impacts of the hydrogen evolution reaction are allowed to play out. Using this new electrolyte, a full cell Zn metal battery with an anode/cathode capacity (N/P) ratio of 2:1 demonstrates no capacity fading over 800 cycles.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Aqueous electrolytes typically suffer from poor electrochemical stability; however, eutectic aqueous solutions—25 wt.% LiCl and 62 wt.% H3PO4—cooled to −78 °C exhibit a significantly widened stability window. Integrated experimental and simulation results reveal that, upon cooling, Li+ions become less hydrated and pair up with Cl, ice‐like water clusters form, and H⋅⋅⋅Clbonding strengthens. Surprisingly, this low‐temperature solvation structure does not strengthen water molecules’ O−H bond, bucking the conventional wisdom that increasing water's stability requires stiffening the O−H covalent bond. We propose a more general mechanism for water's low temperature inertness in the electrolyte: less favorable solvation of OHand H+, the byproducts of hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. To showcase this stability, we demonstrate an aqueous Li‐ion battery using LiMn2O4cathode and CuSe anode with a high energy density of 109 Wh/kg. These results highlight the potential of aqueous batteries for polar and extraterrestrial missions.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Aqueous electrolytes typically suffer from poor electrochemical stability; however, eutectic aqueous solutions—25 wt.% LiCl and 62 wt.% H3PO4—cooled to −78 °C exhibit a significantly widened stability window. Integrated experimental and simulation results reveal that, upon cooling, Li+ions become less hydrated and pair up with Cl, ice‐like water clusters form, and H⋅⋅⋅Clbonding strengthens. Surprisingly, this low‐temperature solvation structure does not strengthen water molecules’ O−H bond, bucking the conventional wisdom that increasing water's stability requires stiffening the O−H covalent bond. We propose a more general mechanism for water's low temperature inertness in the electrolyte: less favorable solvation of OHand H+, the byproducts of hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. To showcase this stability, we demonstrate an aqueous Li‐ion battery using LiMn2O4cathode and CuSe anode with a high energy density of 109 Wh/kg. These results highlight the potential of aqueous batteries for polar and extraterrestrial missions.

     
    more » « less