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  1. Abstract Recent rapid thinning of West Antarctic ice shelves are believed to be caused by intrusions of warm deep water that induce basal melting and seaward meltwater export. This study uses data from three bottom-mounted mooring arrays to show seasonal variability and local forcing for the currents moving into and out of the Dotson ice shelf cavity. A southward flow of warm, salty water had maximum current velocities along the eastern channel slope, while northward outflows of freshened ice shelf meltwater spread at intermediate depth above the western slope. The inflow correlated with the local ocean surface stress curl. At the western slope, meltwater outflows followed the warm influx along the eastern slope with a ~2–3 month delay. Ocean circulation near Dotson Ice Shelf, affected by sea ice distribution and wind, appears to significantly control the inflow of warm water and subsequent ice shelf melting on seasonal time-scales. 
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  2. Abstract

    We report the temperature dependence of the Yb valence in the geometrically frustrated compoundYbB4from 12 to 300 K using resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy at the YbLα1transition. We find that the Yb valence,v, is hybridized between thev = 2 andv = 3 valence states, increasing fromv=2.61±0.01at 12 K tov=2.67±0.01at 300 K, confirming thatYbB4is a Kondo system in the intermediate valence regime. This result indicates that the Kondo interaction inYbB4is substantial, and is likely to be the reason whyYbB4does not order magnetically at low temperature, rather than this being an effect of geometric frustration. Furthermore, the zero-point valence of the system is extracted from our data and compared with other Kondo lattice systems. The zero-point valence seems to be weakly dependent on the Kondo temperature scale, but not on the valence change temperature scaleTv.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    We present a framework for compactly summarizing many recent results in efficient and/or biologically plausible online training of recurrent neural networks (RNN). The framework organizes algorithms according to several criteria: (a) past vs. future facing, (b) tensor structure, (c) stochastic vs. deterministic, and (d) closed form vs. numerical. These axes reveal latent conceptual connections among several recent advances in online learning. Furthermore, we provide novel mathematical intuitions for their degree of success. Testing various algorithms on two synthetic tasks shows that performances cluster according to our criteria. Although a similar clustering is also observed for gradient alignment, alignment with exact methods does not alone explain ultimate performance, especially for stochastic algorithms. This suggests the need for better comparison metrics. 
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  4. A bstract Charged-lepton-flavor-violation is predicted in several new physics scenarios. We update the analysis of τ lepton decays into a light charged lepton ( ℓ = e ± or μ ± ) and a vector meson ( V 0 = ρ 0 , ϕ , ω , K *0 , or $$ \overline{K} $$ K ¯ *0 ) using 980 fb − 1 of data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB collider. No significant excess of such signal events is observed, and thus 90% credibility level upper limits are set on the τ → ℓV 0 branching fractions in the range of (1.7–4 . 3) × 10 − 8 . These limits are improved by 30% on average from the previous results. 
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