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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Quantum systems have the potential to demonstrate significant computational advantage, but current quantum devices suffer from the rapid accumulation of error that prevents the storage of quantum information over extended periods. The unintentional coupling of qubits to their environment and each other adds significant noise to computation, and improved methods to combat decoherence are required to boost the performance of quantum algorithms on real machines. While many existing techniques for mitigating error rely on adding extra gates to the circuit [ 13 , 20 , 56 ], calibrating new gates [ 50 ], or extending a circuit’s runtime [ 32 ], this article’s primary contribution leverages the gates already present in a quantum program without extending circuit duration. We exploit circuit slack for single-qubit gates that occur in idle windows, scheduling the gates such that their timing can counteract some errors. Spin-echo corrections that mitigate decoherence on idling qubits act as inspiration for this work. Theoretical models, however, fail to capture all sources of noise in Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum devices, making practical solutions necessary that better minimize the impact of unpredictable errors in quantum machines. This article presents TimeStitch: a novel framework that pinpoints the optimum execution schedules for single-qubit gates withinmore »quantum circuits. TimeStitch, implemented as a compilation pass, leverages the reversible nature of quantum computation to boost the success of circuits on real quantum machines. Unlike past approaches that apply reversibility properties to improve quantum circuit execution [ 35 ], TimeStitch amplifies fidelity without violating critical path frontiers in either the slack tuning procedures or the final rescheduled circuit. On average, compared to a state-of-the-art baseline, a practically constrained TimeStitch achieves a mean 38% relative improvement in success rates, with a maximum of 106%, while observing bounds on circuit depth. When unconstrained by depth criteria, TimeStitch produces a mean relative fidelity increase of 50% with a maximum of 256%. Finally, when TimeStitch intelligently leverages periodic dynamical decoupling within its scheduling framework, a mean 64% improvement is observed over the baseline, relatively outperforming stand-alone dynamical decoupling by 19%, with a maximum of 287%.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 31, 2024
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  8. Classical computing plays a critical role in the advancement of quantum frontiers in the NISQ era. In this spirit, this work uses classical simulation to bootstrap Variational Quantum Algorithms (VQAs). VQAs rely upon the iterative optimization of a parameterized unitary circuit (ansatz) with respect to an objective function. Since quantum machines are noisy and expensive resources, it is imperative to classically choose the VQA ansatz initial parameters to be as close to optimal as possible to improve VQA accuracy and accelerate their convergence on today’s devices. This work tackles the problem of finding a good ansatz initialization, by proposing CAFQA, a Clifford Ansatz For Quantum Accuracy. The CAFQA ansatz is a hardware-efficient circuit built with only Clifford gates. In this ansatz, the parameters for the tunable gates are chosen by searching efficiently through the Clifford parameter space via classical simulation. The resulting initial states always equal or outperform traditional classical initialization (e.g., Hartree-Fock), and enable high-accuracy VQA estimations. CAFQA is well-suited to classical computation because: a) Clifford-only quantum circuits can be exactly simulated classically in polynomial time, and b) the discrete Clifford space is searched efficiently via Bayesian Optimization. For the Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE) task of molecular ground statemore »energy estimation (up to 18 qubits), CAFQA’s Clifford Ansatz achieves a mean accuracy of nearly 99% and recovers as much as 99.99% of the molecular correlation energy that is lost in Hartree-Fock initialization. CAFQA achieves mean accuracy improvements of 6.4x and 56.8x, over the state-of-the-art, on different metrics. The scalability of the approach allows for preliminary ground state energy estimation of the challenging chromium dimer (Cr2) molecule. With CAFQA’s high-accuracy initialization, the convergence of VQAs is shown to accelerate by 2.5x, even for small molecules. Furthermore, preliminary exploration of allowing a limited number of non-Clifford (T) gates in the CAFQA framework, shows that as much as 99.9% of the correlation energy can be recovered at bond lengths for which Clifford-only CAFQA accuracy is relatively limited, while remaining classically simulable.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 19, 2023
  9. Recent work has proposed and explored using coreset techniques for quantum algorithms that operate on classical data sets to accelerate the applicability of these algorithms on near-term quantum devices. We apply these ideas to Quantum Boltzmann Machines (QBM) where gradient-based steps which require Gibbs state sampling are the main computational bottle-neck during training. By using a coreset in place of the full data set, we try to minimize the number of steps needed and accelerate the overall training time. In a regime where computational time on quantum computers is a precious resource, we propose this might lead to substantial practical savings. We evaluate this approach on 6x6 binary images from an augmented bars and stripes data set using a QBM with 36 visible units and 8 hidden units. Using an Inception score inspired metric, we compare QBM training times with and without using coresets.