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  1. Quantum computing promises speedup of classical algorithms in the long term. Current hardware is unable to support this goal and programs must be efficiently compiled to use of the devices through reduction of qubits used, gate count and circuit duration. Many quantum systems have access to higher levels, expanding the computational space for a device. We develop higher level qudit communication circuits, compilation pipelines, and circuits that take advantage of this extra space by temporarily pushing qudits into these higher levels. We show how these methods are able to more efficiently use the device, and where they see diminishing returns.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. The control of cryogenic qubits in today’s super-conducting quantum computer prototypes presents significant scalability challenges due to the massive costs of generating/routing the analog control signals that need to be sent from a classical controller at room temperature to the quantum chip inside the dilution refrigerator. Thus, researchers in industry and academia have focused on designing in-fridge classical controllers in order to mitigate these challenges. Due to the maturity of CMOS logic, many industrial efforts (Microsoft, Intel) have focused on Cryo-CMOS as a near-term solution to design in-fridge classical controllers. Meanwhile, Supercon-ducting Single Flux Quantum (SFQ) is an alternative, lessmore »mature classical logic family proposed for large-scale in-fridge controllers. SFQ logic has the potential to maximize scalability thanks to its ultra-high speed and very low power consumption. However, architecture design for SFQ logic poses challenges due to its unconventional pulse-driven nature and lack of dense memory and logic. Thus, research at the architecture level is essential to guide architects to design SFQ-based classical controllers for large-scale quantum machines.In this paper, we present DigiQ, the first system-level design of a Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ)-friendly SFQ-based classical controller. We perform a design space exploration of SFQ-based controllers and co-design the quantum gate decompositions and SFQ-based implementation of those decompositions to find an optimal SFQ-friendly design point that trades area and power for latency and control while ensuring good quantum algorithmic performance. Our co-design results in a single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) controller architecture, which has high scalability, but imposes new challenges on the calibration of control pulses. We present software-level solutions to address these challenges, which if unaddressed would degrade quantum circuit fidelity given the imperfections of qubit hardware.To validate and characterize DigiQ, we first implement it using hardware description languages and synthesize it using state-of-the-art/validated SFQ synthesis tools. Our synthesis results show that DigiQ can operate within the tight power and area budget of dilution refrigerators at >42,000-qubit scales. Second, we confirm the effectiveness of DigiQ in running quantum algorithms by modeling the execution time and fidelity of a variety of NISQ applications. We hope that the promising results of this paper motivate experimentalists to further explore SFQ-based quantum controllers to realize large-scale quantum machines with maximized scalability.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Variational Quantum Algorithms (VQA) are one of the most promising candidates for near-term quantum advantage. Traditionally, these algorithms are parameterized by rotational gate angles whose values are tuned over iterative execution on quantum machines. The iterative tuning of these gate angle parameters make VQAs more robust to a quantum machine’s noise profile. However, the effect of noise is still a significant detriment to VQA’s target estimations on real quantum machines — they are far from ideal. Thus, it is imperative to employ effective error mitigation strategies to improve the fidelity of these quantum algorithms on near-term machines.While existing error mitigationmore »techniques built from theory do provide substantial gains, the disconnect between theory and real machine execution characteristics limit the scope of these improvements. Thus, it is critical to optimize mitigation techniques to explicitly suit the target application as well as the noise characteristics of the target machine.We propose VAQEM, which dynamically tailors existing error mitigation techniques to the actual, dynamic noisy execution characteristics of VQAs on a target quantum machine. We do so by tuning specific features of these mitigation techniques similar to the traditional rotation angle parameters -by targeting improvements towards a specific objective function which represents the VQA problem at hand. In this paper, we target two types of error mitigation techniques which are suited to idle times in quantum circuits: single qubit gate scheduling and the insertion of dynamical decoupling sequences. We gain substantial improvements to VQA objective measurements — a mean of over 3x across a variety of VQA applications, run on IBM Quantum machines.More importantly, while we study two specific error mitigation techniques, the proposed variational approach is general and can be extended to many other error mitigation techniques whose specific configurations are hard to select a priori. Integrating more mitigation techniques into the VAQEM framework in the future can lead to further formidable gains, potentially realizing practically useful VQA benefits on today’s noisy quantum machines.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  4. The current phase of quantum computing is in the Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) era. On NISQ devices, two-qubit gates such as CNOTs are much noisier than single-qubit gates, so it is essential to minimize their count. Quantum circuit synthesis is a process of decomposing an arbitrary unitary into a sequence of quantum gates, and can be used as an optimization tool to produce shorter circuits to improve overall circuit fidelity. However, the time-to-solution of synthesis grows exponentially with the number of qubits. As a result, synthesis is intractable for circuits on a large qubit scale. In this paper, we proposemore »a hierarchical, block-by-block opti-mization framework, QGo, for quantum circuit optimization. Our approach allows an exponential cost optimization to scale to large circuits. QGo uses a combination of partitioning and synthesis: 1) partition the circuit into a sequence of independent circuit blocks; 2) re-generate and optimize each block using quantum synthesis; and 3) re-compose the final circuit by stitching all the blocks together. We perform our analysis and show the fidelity improvements in three different regimes: small-size circuits on real devices, medium-size circuits on noisy simulations, and large-size circuits on analytical models. Our technique can be applied after existing optimizations to achieve higher circuit fidelity. Using a set of NISQ benchmarks, we show that QGo can reduce the number of CNOT gates by 29.9% on average and up to 50% when compared with industrial compiler optimizations such as t|ket). When executed on the IBM Athens system, shorter depth leads to higher circuit fidelity. We also demonstrate the scalability of our QGo technique to optimize circuits of 60+ qubits, Our technique is the first demonstration of successfully employing and scaling synthesis in the compilation tool chain for large circuits. Overall, our approach is robust for direct incorporation in production compiler toolchains to further improve the circuit fidelity.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  5. As the popularity of quantum computing continues to grow, quantum machine access over the cloud is critical to both academic and industry researchers across the globe. And as cloud quantum computing demands increase exponentially, the analysis of resource consumption and execution characteristics are key to efficient management of jobs and resources at both the vendor-end as well as the client-end. While the analysis of resource consumption and management are popular in the classical HPC domain, it is severely lacking for more nascent technology like quantum computing. This paper is a first-of-its-kind academic study, analyzing various trends in job execution andmore »resources consumption / utilization on quantum cloud systems. We focus on IBM Quantum systems and analyze characteristics over a two year period, encompassing over 6000 jobs which contain over 600,000 quantum circuit executions and correspond to almost 10 billion “shots” or trials over 20+ quantum machines. Specifically, we analyze trends focused on, but not limited to, execution times on quantum machines, queuing/waiting times in the cloud, circuit compilation times, machine utilization, as well as the impact of job and machine characteristics on all of these trends. Our analysis identifies several similarities and differences with classical HPC cloud systems. Based on our insights, we make recommendations and contributions to improve the management of resources and jobs on future quantum cloud systems.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  6. Scalability of today’s superconducting quantum computers is limited due to the huge costs of generating/routing microwave control pulses per qubit from room temperature. One active research area in both industry and academia is to push the classical controllers to the dilution refrigerator in order to increase the scalability of quantum computers. Superconducting Single Flux Quantum (SFQ) is a classical logic technology with low power consumption and ultra-high speed, and thus is a promising candidate for in-fridge classical controllers with maximized scalability. Prior work has demonstrated high-fidelity SFQ-based single-qubit gates. However, little research has been done on SFQ-based multi-qubit gates, whichmore »are necessary to realize SFQ-based universal quantum computing.In this paper, we present the first thorough analysis of SFQ-based two-qubit gates. Our observations show that SFQ-based two-qubit gates tend to have high leakage to qubit non-computational subspace, which presents severe design challenges. We show that despite these challenges, we can realize gates with high fidelity by carefully designing optimal control methods and qubit architectures. We develop optimal control methods that suppress leakage, and also investigate various qubit architectures that reduce the leakage. After carefully engineering our SFQ-friendly quantum system, we show that it can achieve similar gate fidelity and gate time to microwave-based quantum systems. The promising results of this paper show that (1) SFQ-based universal quantum computation is both feasible and effective; and (2) SFQ is a promising approach in designing classical controller for quantum machines because it can increase the scalability while preserving gate fidelity and performance.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  7. null (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  8. As the popularity of quantum computing continues to grow, efficient quantum machine access over the cloud is critical to both academic and industry researchers across the globe. And as cloud quantum computing demands increase exponentially, the analysis of resource consumption and execution characteristics are key to efficient management of jobs and resources at both the vendor-end as well as the client-end. While the analysis and optimization of job / resource consumption and management are popular in the classical HPC domain, it is severely lacking for more nascent technology like quantum computing.This paper proposes optimized adaptive job scheduling to the quantummore »cloud taking note of primary characteristics such as queuing times and fidelity trends across machines, as well as other characteristics such as quality of service guarantees and machine calibration constraints. Key components of the proposal include a) a prediction model which predicts fidelity trends across machine based on compiled circuit features such as circuit depth and different forms of errors, as well as b) queuing time prediction for each machine based on execution time estimations.Overall, this proposal is evaluated on simulated IBM machines across a diverse set of quantum applications and system loading scenarios, and is able to reduce wait times by over 3x and improve fidelity by over 40% on specific usecases, when compared to traditional job schedulers.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  9. Simulating the time evolution of a physical system at quantum mechanical levels of detail - known as Hamiltonian Simulation (HS) - is an important and interesting problem across physics and chemistry. For this task, algorithms that run on quantum computers are known to be exponentially faster than classical algorithms; in fact, this application motivated Feynman to propose the construction of quantum computers. Nonetheless, there are challenges in reaching this performance potential. Prior work has focused on compiling circuits (quantum programs) for HS with the goal of maximizing either accuracy or gate cancellation. Our work proposes a compilation strategy that simultaneouslymore »advances both goals. At a high level, we use classical optimizations such as graph coloring and travelling salesperson to order the execution of quantum programs. Specifically, we group together mutually commuting terms in the Hamiltonian (a matrix characterizing the quantum mechanical system) to improve the accuracy of the simulation. We then rearrange the terms within each group to maximize gate cancellation in the final quantum circuit. These optimizations work together to improve HS performance and result in an average 40% reduction in circuit depth. This work advances the frontier of HS which in turn can advance physical and chemical modeling in both basic and applied sciences.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  10. Instruction scheduling is a key compiler optimization in quantum computing, just as it is for classical computing. Current schedulers optimize for data parallelism by allowing simultaneous execution of instructions, as long as their qubits do not overlap. However, on many quantum hardware platforms, instructions on overlapping qubits can be executed simultaneously through global interactions. For example, while fan-out in traditional quantum circuits can only be implemented sequentially when viewed at the logical level, global interactions at the physical level allow fan-out to be achieved in one step. We leverage this simultaneous fan-out primitive to optimize circuit synthesis for NISQ (Noisymore »Intermediate-Scale Quantum) workloads. In addition, we introduce novel quantum memory architectures based on fan-out.Our work also addresses hardware implementation of the fan-out primitive. We perform realistic simulations for trapped ion quantum computers. We also demonstrate experimental proof-of-concept of fan-out with superconducting qubits. We perform depth (runtime) and fidelity estimation for NISQ application circuits and quantum memory architectures under realistic noise models. Our simulations indicate promising results with an asymptotic advantage in runtime, as well as 7–24% reduction in error.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022