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  1. Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing has been used to fabricate complex-shaped structures, which often consist of fine features. Due to transient process phenomena, there are differences in terms of the melt pool formation and the surface morphology depending upon the feature area and scan parameters. This study investigates the scan length effect on the surface morphology and the presence of transient length and width that may have a significant effect as the layer addition continues. For this purpose, four scan lengths (0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 2.0 mm) are used to fabricate six tracks with back-and-forth scanning. A full factorial design of experiments is used to form multi-track depositions with three levels of power (125 W, 160 W, and 195 W), two levels of scan speed (550 mm/s and 1000 mm/s), and four levels of hatch spacing (80 μm, 100 μm, 120 μm, and 140 μm). A white light interferometer is used to acquire the surface data, and MATLAB is used for surface topographical analysis. The results indicated that the scan length has a significant effect on the surface characteristics. The average height of multi-track deposits increases with the decrease of the scan length. Moreover, themore »transient length and width can be approximated based on the height variation along both the scan and transverse directions, respectively.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 27, 2023
  2. In this study, different hatch spacings were used to fabricate single layer and multiple layers, and its effect on porosity was investigated by using microcomputed tomography. The combination of laser power (100 W, 150 W, 175 W, and 195W) and scan speeds (600 mm/s, 800 mm/s, 1000 mm/s and 1200 mm/s) which resulted in the least number of pores were selected from the previous single-track experiment. Six levels of hatch spacings were selected based on the track width to form single and multiple layers: 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 120% and 150% of track widths. For the multilayer build, the variation in keyhole porosity within the given window of parameters were found to be attributed to the variation in the hatch spacing. In general, the pore number decreased with increase in hatch spacing from 60% to 90% but increased when hatch spacing further increased from 90% to 120%.