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  1. In this article, we survey existing academic and commercial efforts to provide Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) acceleration in datacenters and the cloud. The goal is a critical review of existing systems and a discussion of their evolution from single workstations with PCI-attached FPGAs in the early days of reconfigurable computing to the integration of FPGA farms in large-scale computing infrastructures. From the lessons learned, we discuss the future of FPGAs in datacenters and the cloud and assess the challenges likely to be encountered along the way. The article explores current architectures and discusses scalability and abstractions supported by operating systems, middleware, and virtualization. Hardware and software security becomes critical when infrastructure is shared among tenants with disparate backgrounds. We review the vulnerabilities of current systems and possible attack scenarios and discuss mitigation strategies, some of which impact FPGA architecture and technology. The viability of these architectures for popular applications is reviewed, with a particular focus on deep learning and scientific computing. This work draws from workshop discussions, panel sessions including the participation of experts in the reconfigurable computing field, and private discussions among these experts. These interactions have harmonized the terminology, taxonomy, and the important topics covered in this manuscript.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 30, 2023
  2. Here, we report the high pressure phase and morphology behavior of ordered anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystal arrays. One-dimensional TiO2 nanorods and nanorices were synthesized and self-assembled into ordered mesostructures. Their phase and morphological transitions at both atomic scale and mesoscale under pressure were studied using in situ synchrotron wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) techniques. At the atomic scale, synchrotron WAXS reveals a pressure-induced irreversible amorphization up to 35 GPa in both samples but with different onset pressures. On the mesoscale, no clear phase transformations were observed up to 20 GPa by synchrotron SAXS. Intriguingly, sintering of TiO2 nanorods at mesoscale into nano-squares or nano-rectangles, as well as nanorices into nanowires, were observed for the first time by transmission electron microscopy. Such pressure-induced nanoparticle phase-amorphization and morphological changes provide valuable insights for design and engineering structurally stable nanomaterials.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 12, 2023