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  1. Abstract

    Articular cartilage heals poorly but experiences mechanically induced damage across a broad range of loading rates and matrix integrity. Because loading rates and matrix integrity affect cartilage mechanical responses due to poroviscoelastic relaxation mechanisms, their effects on cartilage failure are important for assessing and preventing failure. This paper investigated rate- and integrity-dependent crack nucleation in cartilage from pre- to post-relaxation timescales. Rate-dependent crack nucleation and relaxation responses were obtained as a function of matrix integrity through microindentation. Total work for crack nucleation increased with decreased matrix integrity, and with decreased loading rates. Critical energy release rate of intact cartilagemore »was estimated as 2.39 ± 1.39 to 2.48 ± 1.26 kJ m−2in a pre-relaxation timescale. These findings showed that crack nucleation is delayed when cartilage can accommodate localized loading through poroviscoelastic relaxation mechanisms before fracture at a given loading rate and integrity state.

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  2. Abstract Adopting the Standard Halo Model (SHM) of an isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution for dark matter (DM) particles in the Galaxy, the most stringent current constraints on their spin-dependent scattering cross-section with nucleons come from the IceCube neutrino observatory and the PICO-60 $$\hbox {C}_3\hbox {F}_8$$ C 3 F 8 superheated bubble chamber experiments. The former is sensitive to high energy neutrinos from the self-annihilation of DM particles captured in the Sun, while the latter looks for nuclear recoil events from DM scattering off nucleons. Although slower DM particles are more likely to be captured by the Sun, the faster onesmore »are more likely to be detected by PICO. Recent N-body simulations suggest significant deviations from the SHM for the smooth halo component of the DM, while observations hint at a dominant fraction of the local DM being in substructures. We use the method of Ferrer et al. (JCAP 1509: 052, 2015) to exploit the complementarity between the two approaches and derive conservative constraints on DM-nucleon scattering. Our results constrain $$\sigma _{\mathrm{SD}} \lesssim 3 \times 10^{-39} \mathrm {cm}^2$$ σ SD ≲ 3 × 10 - 39 cm 2 ( $$6 \times 10^{-38} \mathrm {cm}^2$$ 6 × 10 - 38 cm 2 ) at $$\gtrsim 90\%$$ ≳ 90 % C.L. for a DM particle of mass 1 TeV annihilating into $$\tau ^+ \tau ^-$$ τ + τ - ( $$b\bar{b}$$ b b ¯ ) with a local density of $$\rho _{\mathrm{DM}} = 0.3~\mathrm {GeV/cm}^3$$ ρ DM = 0.3 GeV / cm 3 . The constraints scale inversely with $$\rho _{\mathrm{DM}}$$ ρ DM and are independent of the DM velocity distribution.« less