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  1. Abstract

    The behavior and predictability of rip currents (strong, wave‐driven offshore‐directed surfzone currents) have been studied for decades. However, few studies have examined the effects of rip channel morphology on the rip generation or have compared morphodynamic models with observations. Here, simulations conducted with the numerical morphodynamic model MIKE21 reproduce observed trends in flows and bathymetric evolution for two channels dredged across a nearshore sandbar and terrace on an ocean beach near Duck, NC, USA. Channel dimensions, wave conditions, and flows differed between the two cases. In one case, a strong rip current was driven by moderate height, near‐normally incident waves over an approximately 1‐m deep channel with relatively little bathymetric evolution. In the other case, no rip was generated by the large, near‐normally incident waves over the shallower (∼0.5 m) channel, and the channel migrated in the direction of the mean flow and eventually filled in. The model simulated the flow directions, the generation (or not) of rip currents, and the morphological evolution of the channels reasonably well. Model simulations were then conducted for different combinations of the two channel geometries and two wave conditions to examine the relative importance of the waves and morphology to the rip current evolution. The different bathymetries were the dominant factor controlling the flow, whereas both the initial morphology and wave conditions were important for channel evolution. In addition, channel dimensions affected the spatial distribution of rip current forcings and the relative importance of terms.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Abstract Background

    This study examined the relations between students' expectancies for success and a physiological component of test anxiety, salivary cortisol, during an authentic testing setting.


    The aim of the study was to better understand the connection between shifts in students' control appraisals and changes in the physiological component of test anxiety.


    The study comprised 45 undergraduate engineering majors in the United States.


    Survey data concerning students' expectancy for success and saliva samples were taken before, during and after the practice midterm examination prior to their actual in‐class examination.


    Students' expectancy for success declined during the examination while cortisol levels declined from the beginning to middle of the examination and began to increase again as a function of time. Although students' initial levels of expectancy for success and cortisol were not correlated, there was a negative relation between change in cortisol and change in expectancy for success.


    Our study demonstrates a relation between salivary cortisol, a physiological component of test anxiety and students' expectancy for success in an authentic testing context. Most students saw a decrease in cortisol during the examination, suggesting anticipatory anxiety prior to the test and a return to homeostasis as the examination progressed. Some students, however, did not see a declination in cortisol, suggesting they may not have recovered from pre‐examination anxiety. The negative relation between change in cortisol and expectancy for success suggests that students who had the greatest decrease in expectancy for success saw the smallest recovery in cortisol.

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  3. Abstract

    Seismic deployments in the Alaska subduction zone provide dense sampling of the seismic wavefield that constrains thermal structure and subduction geometry. We measurePandSattenuation from pairwise amplitude and phase spectral ratios for teleseismic body waves at 206 stations from regional and short‐term arrays. Parallel teleseismic travel‐time measurements provide information on seismic velocities at the same scale. These data show consistently low attenuation over the forearc of subduction systems and high attenuation over the arc and backarc, similar to local‐earthquake attenuation studies but at 10× lower frequencies. The pattern is seen both across the area of normal Pacific subduction in Cook Inlet, and across the Wrangell Volcanic Field where subduction has been debated. These observations confirm subduction‐dominated thermal regime beneath the latter. Travel times show evidence for subducting lithosphere much deeper than seismicity, while attenuation measurements appear mostly reflective of mantle temperature less than 150 km deep, depths where the mantle is closest to its solidus and where subduction‐related melting may take place. Travel times show strong delays over thick sedimentary basins. Attenuation signals show no evidence of absorption by basins, although some basins show signals anomalously rich in high‐frequency energy, with consequent negative apparent attenuation. Outside of basins, these data are consistent with mantle attenuation in the upper 220 km that is quantitatively similar to observations from surface waves and local‐earthquake body waves. Differences betweenPandSattenuation suggest primarily shear‐modulus relaxation. Overall the attenuation measurements show consistent, coherent subduction‐related structure, complementary to travel times.

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  4. ABSTRACT Posttranslational modification of a protein, either alone or in combination with other modifications, can control properties of that protein, such as enzymatic activity, localization, stability, or interactions with other molecules. N -ε-Lysine acetylation is one such modification that has gained attention in recent years, with a prevalence and significance that rival those of phosphorylation. This review will discuss the current state of the field in bacteria and some of the work in archaea, focusing on both mechanisms of N -ε-lysine acetylation and methods to identify, quantify, and characterize specific acetyllysines. Bacterial N -ε-lysine acetylation depends on both enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms of acetylation, and recent work has shed light into the regulation of both mechanisms. Technological advances in mass spectrometry have allowed researchers to gain insight with greater biological context by both (i) analyzing samples either with stable isotope labeling workflows or using label-free protocols and (ii) determining the true extent of acetylation on a protein population through stoichiometry measurements. Identification of acetylated lysines through these methods has led to studies that probe the biological significance of acetylation. General and diverse approaches used to determine the effect of acetylation on a specific lysine will be covered. 
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