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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  2. Abstract Magnetar giant flares are rare and highly energetic phenomena observed in the transient sky whose emission mechanisms are still not fully understood. Depending on the nature of the excited modes of the magnetar, they are also expected to emit gravitational waves (GWs), which may bring unique information about the dynamics of the excitation. A few magnetar giant flares have been proposed to be associated with short gamma-ray bursts. In this paper we use a new gravitational-wave search algorithm to revisit the possible emission of GWs from four magnetar giant flares within 5 Mpc. While no gravitational-wave signals were observed,more »we discuss the future prospects of detecting signals with more sensitive gravitational-wave detectors. In particular, we show that galactic magnetar giant flares that emit at least 1% of their electromagnetic energy as GWs could be detected during the planned observing run of the LIGO and Virgo detectors at design sensitivity, with even better prospects for third-generation detectors.« less
  3. ABSTRACT The detection of the optical transient AT2017gfo proved that binary neutron star mergers are progenitors of kilonovae (KNe). Using a combination of numerical-relativity and radiative-transfer simulations, the community has developed sophisticated models for these transients for a wide portion of the expected parameter space. Using these simulations and surrogate models made from them, it has been possible to perform Bayesian inference of the observed signals to infer properties of the ejected matter. It has been pointed out that combining inclination constraints derived from the KN with gravitational-wave measurements increases the accuracy with which binary parameters can be estimated, inmore »particular breaking the distance-inclination degeneracy from gravitational wave inference. To avoid bias from the unknown ejecta geometry, constraints on the inclination angle for AT2017gfo should be insensitive to the employed models. In this work, we compare different assumptions about the ejecta and radiative reprocesses used by the community and we investigate their impact on the parameter inference. While most inferred parameters agree, we find disagreement between posteriors for the inclination angle for different geometries that have been used in the current literature. According to our study, the inclusion of reprocessing of the photons between different ejecta types improves the modeling fits to AT2017gfo and, in some cases, affects the inferred constraints. Our study motivates the inclusion of large ∼ 1-mag uncertainties in the KN models employed for Bayesian analysis to capture yet unknown systematics, especially when inferring inclination angles, although smaller uncertainties seem appropriate to capture model systematics for other intrinsic parameters. We can use this method to impose soft constraints on the ejecta geometry of the KN AT2017gfo.« less
  4. ABSTRACT GRANDMA (Global Rapid Advanced Network Devoted to the Multi-messenger Addicts) is a network of 25 telescopes of different sizes, including both photometric and spectroscopic facilities. The network aims to coordinate follow-up observations of gravitational-wave (GW) candidate alerts, especially those with large localization uncertainties, to reduce the delay between the initial detection and the optical confirmation. In this paper, we detail GRANDMA’s observational performance during Advanced LIGO/Advanced Virgo Observing Run 3 (O3), focusing on the second part of O3; this includes summary statistics pertaining to coverage and possible astrophysical origin of the candidates. To do so, we quantify our observationmore »efficiency in terms of delay between GW candidate trigger time, observations, and the total coverage. Using an optimized and robust coordination system, GRANDMA followed-up about 90 per cent of the GW candidate alerts, that is 49 out of 56 candidates. This led to coverage of over 9000 deg2 during O3. The delay between the GW candidate trigger and the first observation was below 1.5 h for 50 per cent of the alerts. We did not detect any electromagnetic counterparts to the GW candidates during O3, likely due to the very large localization areas (on average thousands of degrees squares) and relatively large distance of the candidates (above 200 Mpc for 60 per cent of binary neutron star, BNS candidates). We derive constraints on potential kilonova properties for two potential BNS coalescences (GW190425 and S200213t), assuming that the events’ locations were imaged.« less